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# XEP User Guide

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Because of continued product development, the information contained in this document may change without notice. The information and intellectual property contained herein are confidential and remain the exclusive intellectual property of RenderX. If you find any problems in the documentation, please report them to us in writing. RenderX does not warrant that this document is error-free.

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RenderX

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Website: http://renderx.com

Preface
What's in this Document?
Prerequisites
Acronyms
Technical Support
Overview
Introduction
Basic Terms
XEP Assistant
What is XEP Assistant?
Opening XEP Assistant
Rendering an XML File using XEP Assistant
Opening a File
Formatting a File
Using the Command Line
Running XEP
XEP Options
XEP Switches
XEP Arguments
Examples of Running XEP from the Command Line
Configuring XEP
Configuring XEP using XEP Assistant
Configuring Main Settings
Configuring Backends
Configuring the Backend for PDF Files
Configuring the Backend for PostScript Files
Configuring the Backend for AFP Files
AFP Fonts
Configuring the Backend for SVG Files
Configuring the Backend for PPML Files
Configuring the Backend for XHTML Files
Configuring Languages
Configuring Fonts
Configuring XEP via the XEP Configuration File
Configuration Structure
Core Options
Configuring Output Formats
Unicode Strings in Annotations (PDF, PostScript)
Initial Zoom Factor (PDF, PostScript)
PDF Initial View (PDF, PostScript)
Logical Page Numbering (PDF)
Page Layout (PDF)
PDF Viewer Preferences (PDF)
Treatment of Unused Destinations (PDF, PostScript)
ICC Profile (PDF)
PDF/X Support (PDF)
PDF/A Support (PDF)
Prepress Support (PDF, PostScript)
Compression of PDF Streams (PDF)
Linearization (PDF)
Document Security (PDF)
PostScript Language Level (PostScript)
EPS Graphics Treatment (PostScript)
Page Device Control (PostScript)
Invoke Medium Map (AFP)
Page Labeling (PostScript)
Image Inline Threshold (PostScript)
Images Treatment in XML Output (XEP, SVG, XHTML)
Break pages (SVG/XHTML)
Generate first N pages (SVG/XHTML)
Generate XForms (XHTML)
External Document Injection (PDF)
Configuring Fonts
Fonts and Font Families
Embedding and Subsetting Fonts
AFP Fonts
Algorithmic Slanting
Ligaturization
Initial Encoding
Font Groups
Font Aliases
Configuring Languages
Configuring Hyphenation
Language-Specific Font Aliases
Resolution of External Entities and URIs
XEP AFP Generator
Generating AFP Documents
Fonts
Font Mapping
Images
Image Support
Referencing Images
Image Clipping
Highlight Color Support
Graphics Support
Barcodes Support
FORMDEF Resource
What is a FORMDEF Resource?
Generating a Document with FORMDEF Resource
FORMDEF Processing Instructions
FORMDEF Syntax
Other FORMDEF Instructions
Configuring the XEP AFP Generator
Configuring Character Sets
Configuring Fonts
Configuring Highlight Color Table
Configuring Data Types
Other Configuration Options
Bullets support
International Character Set Support
Limitations of the XEP AFP Generator
XEP SVG Generator
Generating SVG Documents
Image Support
Color Support
Configuring the XEP SVG Generator
Limitations of the XEP SVG Generator
XEP XPS Generator
Generating XPS Documents
Image Support
Color Support
Configuring the XEP XPS Generator
Limitations of the XEP XPS Generator
XEP XHTML Generator
Generating XHTML Documents
Image Support
Color Support
XForms
Configuring the XEP XHTML Generator
Limitations of the XEP XHTML Generator
XEP PPML Generator
Generating PPML Documents
Image Support
Configuring the XEP PPML Generator
A. XSL-FO Conformance
XSL-FO Support
Formatting Objects Supported by XEP
Formatting Properties Supported by XEP
Notes on Formatting Objects Implementation
Supported Expressions
Color Specifiers
XSL 1.1 Support
Document Outline (Bookmarks)
Indexes
Last Page Number Reference
Change Bars
Folio Prefix and Suffix
Extensions to the XSL 1.0 Recommendation
Document Information
Document Outline (Bookmarks)
Indexes
Index Term Markup
Index Entries
Flow Sections
Last Page Number Reference
Change Bars
Background Image Scaling and Content Type
Initial Destination
Base URI Definition: xml:base
Floats Alignment
Multicolumn Footnotes
Unique Footnotes
Watermark
Transpromo
PDF Forms
JavaScript for PDF
Multimedia features
Rich Media
FlashVars
Rich Media Resources
PDF Note Annotations
PDF/A support
Overprint
B. Linguistic Algorithms
Line-Breaking Algorithm
Hyphenation
Hyphenation Patterns
Support for Right-to-Left Writing Systems
Bidirectionality
Glyph Shaping
C. Supported Fonts
Supported Fonts
PostScript Type 1 Fonts
PostScript Fonts and Unicode
TrueType Fonts
OpenType/CFF Fonts
Supported AFP Fonts
D. Supported Graphic Formats
Supported Graphic Formats
Bitmap Graphics
PNG
JPEG
GIF
TIFF
Vector Graphics
SVG
PDF
EPS
XEPOUT
E. XEP Intermediate Output Format Specification
XEP Intermediate Output Format Specification
F. Accessibility Support in XEP
Overview
Accessibility Support in XEP
Tagged PDF
RenderX XEP rolemap.xml
XSL-FO Extensions
PDF Structure Tag
PDF Artifact Type and Subtype
Alternate Description
Actual Text
Abbreviations
Tables
Hints and Tips
Using rolemap.xml
G. List of Output Generators' Options
List of Output Generators' Options
H. Configuration File DTD
Configuration File DTD
I. DocBook Support
Processing DocBook Document
Using Catalogs for DocBook
XEP Connector for jEdit version 2.1
Changes since version 1.*
Overview
Installation
XEP ANT Task 2.0 User's Guide
Changes since version 1.*
Overview
Configuration
Parameters
Parameters specified as nested elements
Examples

## What's in this Document?

The RenderX User Guide provides background information about what XEP does and explains how to use the product. The manual is divided into the following sections:

1. Overview

2. XEP Assistant

3. Using the Command Line

4. Configuring XEP

5. XEP AFP Generator

6. XEP SVG Generator

7. XEP XPS Generator

8. XEP XHTML (XForms) Generator

9. XEP PPML Generator

## Prerequisites

XEP runs on most systems where Java Virtual Machine 1.1.8 or newer is available. This includes:

• Unixes;

• Microsoft Windows;

• Linux;

• Mac OS X;

• Other platforms and Operation Systems.

The Java edition of XEP requires a Java VM 1.2 or higher to run properly. Sun JRE version 1.3 or later is highly recommended. AFP Backend works with all versions of JRE 1.4 up to 1.6.0_01.

AFP Backend requires charsets.jar installed with JRE. By default, JRE is installed without charsets.jar file. Please run JRE installer and check the "additional languages support" checkbox.

### Note:

Actual checkbox name may vary for different versions of JRE.

XEP 4.26.503 demonstrates best performance running under JRE 1.6. This version of JRE is shipped within XEPWin distributions.

In order to view PDF output, a viewer is required. Adobe provides a free one which can be downloaded and installed from the Adobe website.

To view PostScript files, one option is to use GhostView, which may be used for viewing PDF as well. Versions are available for most operating systems.

## Acronyms

The following table lists acronyms used in this manual:

Table 1. Acronyms

Acronym Full Term
CJK Chinese Japanese Korean (Unicode UTF-8 encoding standard for Asian character set)
CMYK Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Key/blacK (4-color ink model used for printing)
DTD Document Type Definition
PODi The Digital Printing Initiative
PPML Personalized Print Markup Language
SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language
SVG Scalable Vector Graphics
SWF Small Web Format. Flash Format File (Adobe Systems Incorporated)
XPS XML Paper Specification
XHTML Extensible HyperText Markup Language
URL Uniform Resource Locater (world wide web address)
W3C World Wide Web Consortium
XML eXtensible Markup Language
XSL eXtensible Stylesheet Language
XSL-FO eXtensible Stylesheet Language Formatting Objects
JRE Java Runtime Environment
JDK Java Development Kit

## Technical Support

You can contact RenderX technical support by:

## Overview

This section contains introductory information about XEP.

## Introduction

XEP is a library of Java classes that converts XML data to printable formats, such as PDF, PostScript, AFP, PPML. It can also produce SVG, XPS and XHTML files. XEP accepts either an XSL-FO file, or an XML file paired with an XSL stylesheet, as input. In the latter case, XEP uses an internal XSLT transformer to preprocess the XML file according to the XSL stylesheet, thereby converting it to an XSL-FO file. The XEP engine then processes the XSL-FO file.

The logical flow of document processing can be divided into three phases, as illustrated in the following figure:

• Parsing - XEP reads the XSL-FO file and creates an internal representation of the file in memory.

• Formatting - The XSL-FO is fed into the formatter which creates and fills pages according to the specification defined in the XSL-FO document. Results of the formatting stage can be output as XML to be further processed later.

• Generating - The XSL-FO file is converted to the requested output format - PDF, PostScript, AFP, SVG, XPS, XHTML or PPML.

XEP can be run in three different environments:

• XEP Assistant - XEP includes a GUI-based tool for more comfortable transformation of files, suitable for users that prefer graphic interface. For a detailed description, refer to XEP Assistant.

• Command Line - XEP can be run from the command line as described in Using the Command Line.

• Integration - XEP can be integrated into other tools.

XEP can be configured to allow users to apply settings, such as fonts, languages and formatting options, according to their preferences. For a detailed reference please refer to Configuring XEP.

## Basic Terms

This section provides an introduction to the basic terms that are used throughout this documentation.

PDF (Portable Document Format)

PDF is a universal file format that preserves the fonts, images, graphics, and layout of any source document, regardless of the application and platform that were used to create it. See the Adobe Web site http://www.adobe.com for more information.

PostScript®

Adobe® PostScript® is the worldwide printing and imaging standard. Used by print service providers, publishers, corporations and government agencies around the globe, Adobe PostScript 3 gives you the power to print visually-rich documents. See the Adobe Web site http://www.adobe.com for more information.

AFP is an architecture standard for High Volume Transaction Output, supported by such vendors of printing equipment as IBM, Kodak and Xerox. AFP has built-in support for text and raster graphic output, vector graphic, vector and raster fonts, as well as many other features. The entire document structure of AFP document is organized by means of a higher level protocol called MO:DCA which links all printable objects together and builds the whole document.

PPML (Personalized Print Markup Language)

The Personalized Print Markup Language (PPML) standard was introduced in May 2000 by PODi (see the PODi: the Digital Printing Initiative, website: http://www.podi.org). PPML is for high-volume and full-color variable data printing. Key concepts include the ability to leverage existing standards and to ensure interoperability between and among hardware and software vendors. PPML promotes the development of highly efficient print streams through object-level addressability and reusability for page components in a print workflow. PPML is an open industry standard that uses an XML grammar to define how to compose digital assets into objects, pages, documents, and sets.

SVG

SVG is a language for describing two-dimensional graphics in XML. A World Wide Web Consortium specification. See the W3C website http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/ for more information.

XPS

The XML Paper Specification describes electronic paper in a way that can be read by hardware, read by software, and read by people. See the Microsoft website http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/xps/default.mspx for more information.

XHTML

Extensible Hypertext Markup Language. XHTML is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. A World Wide Web Consortium specification. See the W3C website http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/ for more information.

XForms

XForms is an XML format for the specification of a data processing model for XML data and user interface(s) for the XML data, such as web forms. A World Wide Web Consortium specification. See the W3C website http://www.w3.org/TR/xforms11/ for more information.

XSL-FO

XSL, Formatting objects. A standard way of specifying how content should be presented. A World Wide Web Consortium specification. See the W3C website http://www.w3.org/TR/xsl/ for more information.

## What is XEP Assistant?

XEP contains a user-friendly GUI tool, called XEP Assistant. Use of XEP Assistant simplifies rendering from XML or XSL-FO into the desired output format.

## Opening XEP Assistant

To open XEP Assistant, browse to the XEP Installation directory and launch x4u.bat or x4u bash script.

## Rendering an XML File using XEP Assistant

### Opening a File

To render a file, first of all, you must open the XML or XSL-FO file you wish to publish.

To open an existing XML or XSL-FO file:

1. From the main menu, click File.

2. From the File menu, click Open.

A dialog box is displayed.

3. Browse to the file you wish to open.

The file is opened within XEP Assistant.

### Formatting a File

Once an XML file is open, it must first be "transformed" before it can be formatted to PDF, PostScript, AFP, SVG, XPS, XHTML or PPML output. "Transforming" refers to the assignment of various settings required to apply an XSL stylesheet to your XML file. The result of the transforming is that the XML file is transformed into an XSL-FO. The XSL-FO is than formatted to your final output format (PDF, PS, AFP, SVG, XPS, XHTML or PPML).

To format an XML file:

1. From the main menu, click Formatting.

2. From the Formatting menu, click Start.

The Formatting settings dialog box appears.

3. Set the desired settings as described in the following table.

Table 2. Formatting Settings

Parameter Description
Stylesheet
Apply stylesheet Check the Apply stylesheet checkbox to apply a stylesheet (XSL) to the XML file. Click Browse to browse to the location of the XSL file you wish to apply as a stylesheet to your XML file.
Transformation parameters This button is only enabled when the Apply Stylesheet checkbox is selected. Refer to Figure 5, and Table 3 for a complete description.
Output
Format Select the format to which you want to render the XML file. Available options are PDF, PS, AFP, SVG, XPS, HTML and PPML.
Output File

Select the location and name of the file to which the output will be saved. The default output file name is the identical path and file name as the current XML file with the file extension of the chosen output type.

### Note:

If a file with the same name already exists in the chosen location, the new file will overwrite the preexisting file with no warning.

Set Resource The Use Custom Resource section is only enabled when AFP is selected as the output format. Click Browse to select the location of the resource file. A resource can be attached to an AFP document to control certain reusable objects like images or FORMDEFs.
Viewer
Display With Check the Display With checkbox to automatically display the output once rendering is complete. Browse to the location of the program with which you wish to view the rendered file.

4. Click OK to format the file, and Cancel to cancel the formatting.

1. From the Formatting settings dialog box, click the Transformation parameters button (only enabled when the Apply stylesheet checkbox is selected).

The XSL Parameters dialog box appears.

2. Fill in the fields as described in the following table:

Table 3. XSL Parameters

Field Description
parameter The name of the variable used in the XSL file to represent a parameter value.
value The value corresponding to the variable.

3. Click Add to add a new parameter, or highlight a parameter and click Delete to delete the selected parameter.

4. Click OK to apply changes, or click Cancel to close the dialog box without applying your changes.

To cancel formatting:

1. From the main menu, select Formatting.

2. Select Stop.

Formatting is canceled.

## Using the Command Line

This topic describes how to run XEP from the command line.

## Running XEP

XEP can be run from the command line, as follows:

• On all platforms, by invoking Java directly from the command line.

• On Windows, XEP can be run from a Command Prompt window via the xep.bat batch file.

• On Linux, MAC, and UNIX, XEP can be run from a command shell, via the xep bash script.

To learn more about the xep.bat batch file or the xep bash script, open the file in a text editor. These files use standard scripting features available in the operating system.

The syntax of the Java command is:

java com.renderx.xep.XSLDriver {options} {switches} {arguments}

The above syntax has been simplified by assuming that the directory containing the Java executable is specified in your PATH environment variable, and that the full path of the xep.jar file is in your CLASSPATH environment variable. If you specify an XSL file to convert an XML source document into XSL-FO, then it is assumed that saxon.jar or xt.jar are also specified in your CLASSPATH environment variable.

The syntax of the Windows batch and Linux/MAC shell command is:

xep {options} {switches} {arguments}

The above syntax assumes that the full path to the Windows batch file xep.bat or the Linux/MAC shell script xep is specified in the PATH environment variable, or that the current directory is the directory containing the Windows batch file or Linux/MAC shell script.

The options, switches, and arguments are the same whether XEP is run via Java, via a Windows batch file, or via a Linux/MAC shell script.

## XEP Options

The XEP options are used to configure and customize the behavior of the XEP rendering engine.

XEP requires a configuration file in order to run. By default, the formatter looks for a file named xep.xml in the current directory. If a different configuration file is used, the path to the configuration file must be specified on the command line.

XEP is a flexible tool in which the configuration can be customized according to your preferences. There are several methods to customize XEP. These methods are summarized in the following table:

Table 4. Customizing XEP Configuration

Customization Description Syntax

Editing the configuration file.

The xep.xml configuration file can be customized, thereby customizing all transformations. There are two ways to customize the file:
• Edit the xep.xml file in a text editor.

• From the Options tab in the XEP Assistant.

For editing xep.xml in a text editor, see the section called “Configuring XEP via the XEP Configuration File”.

For the XEP Assistant, see the section called “Configuring XEP using XEP Assistant”.

Setting a custom configuration file. You can set a custom configuration file in the command line for a single file transformation. The location of the custom configuration file can be specified as either a file name in the local file system or as a URL.

All subsequent file transformations will continue to use the standard xep.xml file.

-DCONFIG=<CUSTOM_FILE_PATH>

Customizing the XEP configuration through the command line. In the command line, the configuration can be customized for a single file transformation. The xep.xml file is not changed, and all subsequent file transformations are not affected.

### Note:

It is possible to specify multiple options in the same command line.

### Note:

If there is a contradiction between the configuration file and the customization through the command line, the command line overrides the settings specified in the configuration file.

-D<OPTION_NAME>=<OPTION_VALUE>

### Note:

If any string contains spaces, the entire string must be enclosed in quotation marks.

## XEP Switches

The XEP switches configure the behavior of the command line utility.

Table 5. XEP Switches

Switch Description
-help Displays the detailed syntax of the XEP switches and arguments.
-hosted The Java Virtual Machine continues to run after the renderer has completed rendering the file.
-quiet

By default, XEP writes detailed messages to the command line console. These messages indicate the current status and progress of the rendering process, as well as any warnings or errors that may occur during the rendering process.

Specify this switch to suppress the detailed informational messages. In this case, the renderer outputs only warning and error messages.

-valid The validation is turned off; XEP does not validate the input when rendering.

### Note:

The rendering runs faster, but since the XML source is not validated, there is a chance that the output will not be correct.

-version Displays detailed version information of the XEP rendering engine.

## XEP Arguments

The XEP arguments instruct XEP how to process a file. For example, arguments may specify the input file, the target format to render to, and the output filename. When multiple arguments are specified, they must be specified in the following order:

( [-xml] <infile> [-xsl <stylesheet>] {-param <name=value>}
| -fo <infile>
| -xep <infile> )
[-format]
[[-<output format>] <outfile>]

The XEP arguments are described in the following table.

Table 6. XEP Arguments

Argument Description
-xml The specified input file is an XML source document. When the input file is an XML document, this argument may be omitted.
-fo The specified input file is an XSL-FO document ready to be rendered.
-xep The specified input file is an XEP file, generated previously using the at output format. The XEP file is an XML document that is an internal representation of the rendered document.
<infile> Specifies the input file. This argument is required.
-xsl <stylesheet> Specifies the XSL stylesheet XEP must use to transform the input XML document into XSL-FO. <stylesheet> is the path (absolute or relative to the working directory) of the XSL stylesheet.
-param <name=value> If the XSL stylesheet supports global parameters, they can be set via the -param argument. Each XSL parameter you want to set on the command line requires a separate -param argument.
-<output format>

Specifies the output format to render to. Available output formats are: XEP, PDF, PostScript (PS), AFP, SVG, XPS, XHTML and PPML.

• at — Internal XEP format. This is an XML file that represents the rendered document.

• pdf — PDF format. This is the default output format if no output format is specified.

• afp — AFP format. AFP is an architecture standard for High Volume Transaction Output supported by vendors of printing equipment.

• svg — SVG format.

• xps — XPS format.

• html — XHTML format.

• ppml — PPML format. PPML is Personalized Print Markup Language for high-volume and full-color variable data printing. PPML is an open industry standard that uses an XML grammar to define how to compose digital assets into objects, pages, documents, and sets.

• ps — PostScript format. PostScript is useful when preparing a file to send to a printing service provider.

• xep — Internal XEP format (same as at).

-format Another way of specifying the output format.
-<outfile> Specifies the path and name of the output file. If no output file is specified, the default output file is the same file path and name as the input file with the extension corresponding to file format.

## Examples of Running XEP from the Command Line

This section presents a number of examples of how to run XEP from the command line.

To list all available options and switches:

• At the system prompt, enter:

xep -help.

A list of all available commands is displayed.

c:\myfiles>xep -help
XEP 4.26.503 build 20130808
java com.renderx.xep.XSLDriver
{<option>}
{-quiet | -version | -valid | -hosted | -help}
( [-xml] <infile> [-xsl <stylesheet>] {-param <name=value>}
| -fo <infile>
| -xep <infile> )
[-f]
[[-<output format>] <outfile>]
Available output formats: at (XEP), xep (XEP), pdf (PDF), ps (Postscript), afp (AFP),
svg (SVG), xps (XPS),  html (XHTML), ppml (PPML).

To view the version of XEP you are currently running:

1. At the system prompt, enter:

xep -version.

The version you are currently running as well as the build are displayed.

c:\myfiles>xep -version
XEP 4.23 build 20140727
(document [system-id file:stdin]
2. Press <Ctrl> + <C> to exit XEP interactive mode.

To render an XML document to PDF:

• To render the XML document CommandLine.xml to PDF, using the stylesheet custom-fo.xsl to transform the XML to an XSL-FO document and relying on the default settings for the output format and output filename, at the system prompt, enter:

xep CommandLIne.xml -xsl custom-fo.xsl

## Configuring XEP using XEP Assistant

This section describes how to configure XEP according to your preferences by using XEP Assistant.

To configure XEP:

1. From the main menu, select Options.

2. From the Options menu, select Edit.

The XEP Configuration dialogue box is displayed.

3. Click the Main tab, the Backends tab, the Languages tab or the Fonts tab.

4. Configure the required parameters and click Save to save and close, or Exit to close without saving your changes.

### Configuring Main Settings

The default configuration settings can be set in the Main tab.

Table 7. XEP Configuration Main Tab Parameters

Parameter Possible Values Description
Base Path free text The location of the configuration file (XEP.xml). The Base path is used to resolve relative URLs where parameters accept URLs as values.

Click Change to select the location of the configuration file.

Default Language all supported languages, unspecified.

Default: English (US)

Select the language to use when no language is specified.
Default font family all supported font families, unspecified. Select the font family to use when no font family is specified.

Click Browse to select the location of the license file.

Use temp folder checked, unchecked

Default: unchecked

Check to enable writing temporary files to disk. Once checked, click Browse to set the path to the directory where the temporary files are written.

### Configuring Backends

Using Backends, you can control certain properties in the output documents. There are different available properties for each output type. Select the output type and then configure the properties for the specific output type selected. Refer to the appropriate figure and table for more information on each output type.

To select the output type:

1. On the Backends tab, click Select backend.

2. Select PDF, PostScript, AFP, SVG, HTML or PPML.

The Backend Parameters screen populates with parameters based on the selected backend.

#### Configuring the Backend for PDF Files

Table 8. XEP Configuration Backends Tab PDF Parameters

Parameter Possible Values Description
Select backend PDF, PostScript, AFP, SVG, HTML, PPML

Default: PDF

Select the output type for which you are configuring the backend.
Backend Parameters
Drop unused destination checked, unchecked

Default: checked

Specify whether named destinations are created for objects not referenced within the document.
UNICODE annotations checked, unchecked

Default: checked

Enable or disable use of Unicode to represent PDF annotations strings, such as bookmark text and document info.
Set initial view mode
• auto - If there are bookmarks in the document, the bookmark pane is displayed. Otherwise, all auxiliary panes are hidden.

• show-none - All auxiliary panes are hidden.

• show-bookmarks - The bookmarks pane is displayed.

• show-thumbnails - The thumbnails pane is displayed.

• full-screen - The document is displayed in full-screen mode.

Default: auto
Set the view mode to be activated in the PDF viewer when the PDF file is rendered and viewed.
Set initial zoom value
• auto - Page scaling is not specified.

• fit - The page is scaled to fit completely into the view port.

• fit-width - The page is scaled so that its width matches the width of the view port.

• fit-height - The page is scaled so that its height matches the height of the view port.

• number-or-percentage - The page is scaled by the number or percentage specified in the enabled box.

Default: auto

Specify the magnification factor to be applied when the file is first opened in the PDF viewer.

Default: unchecked

If the check box is checked, then the text box is enabled so that you can type in a password.
Select this option to set an owner password for the PDF document. Owner passwords give the owner full control over the PDF document.

Default: unchecked

If the check box is checked, then the text box is enabled so that you can type in a password.
Select this option to set a user password for the PDF document. Holders of user passwords are subject to access restrictions specified in User Privileges.
User Privileges
• annotate - Enables adding annotations to the document and changing form field values.

• copy - Enables copying text and images from the document onto the clipboard.

• modify - Enables editing the document.

• Print - Enables printing the document.

Default: annotate
Select the privilege for users accessing the resulting document with user password.
Use PDF compression checked, unchecked

Default: checked

Check to compress content streams in PDF using Flate algorithm.
Use PDF linearization checked, unchecked

Default: unchecked

Check to linearize (or optimize for the Web) the PDF output.

#### Configuring the Backend for PostScript Files

Table 9. XEP Configuration Backend Tab for Configuring PostScript Parameters

Parameter Possible Values Description
Select backend PDF, PostScript, AFP, SVG, HTML, PPML

Default: PDF

Select the output type for which you are configuring the backend.
Backend Parameters
Drop unused destination checked, unchecked

Default: checked

Specify whether named destinations are created for objects not referenced within the document.

This information is utilized when the file is further converted to PDF.

UNICODE annotations checked, unchecked

Default: checked

Enable or disable use of Unicode to represent PDF annotations strings, such as bookmark text, and document info.

This information is utilized when the file is further converted to PDF.

Set initial view mode
• auto - If there are bookmarks in the document, the bookmarks pane is displayed. Otherwise, all auxiliary panes are hidden.

• show-none - All auxiliary panes are hidden.

• show-bookmarks - The bookmarks pane is displayed.

• show-thumbnails - The thumbnails pane is displayed.

• full-screen - The document is displayed in full-screen mode.

Default: auto
The PDF document may contain definition of default view mode which is activated by the PDF viewer upon rendering and viewing the file. This option allows specifying this mode.

This information is utilized when the file is further converted to PDF.

Set initial zoom value
• auto - Page scaling is not specified.

• fit - The page is scaled to fit completely into the view port.

• fit-width - The page is scaled so that its width matches the width of the view port.

• fit-height - The page is scaled so that its height matches the height of the view port.

• number-or-percentage - The page is scaled by the number or percentage specified in the enabled box.

Default: auto

Specify the magnification factor to be activated when the file is first opened in the PDF viewer.

This information is utilized when the file is further converted in PDF.

Select PS Level 2,3

Default: 3

Select the target PostScript language level.

### Note:

If the language level is set to 2, some advanced features and improved font definitions are not available.

Clone EPS images
• checked - EPS graphics are pasted into the output stream at each occurrence. This may lead to a substantial growth of the resulting file size.

• unchecked - EPS graphics are posted into the PostScript form. This minimizes the file size, however, some EPS images cannot be processed this way and it may corrupt the PostScript code.

Default:checked
Specify whether EPS graphics are included in the PostScript output using the forms mechanism, or by pasting their contents at each occurrence.

#### Configuring the Backend for AFP Files

Table 10. XEP Configuration Backends Tab AFP Parameters

Parameter Possible Values Description
Select backend PDF, PostScript, AFP, SVG, HTML, PPML

Default: PDF

Select the output type for which you are configuring the backend.
Backend Parameters
Log Level 0,1,2

Default: 0 (Nothing)

Select a number to determine the level of log detail.

0 - Nothing

1 - Warnings only

2 - Warnings and information messages

Resolution positive integer

Default: 1440

Defines which document resolution will be output within the document. It must be positive integer value supported by target AFP device

Convert images to gray checked, unchecked

Default: unchecked

If checked, turns on embedding of raster images as grayscale images, 8 bit per pixel, uncompressed.

Unchecked - embed raster images in their original format

Default: checked

Specifies whether grayscale-filled areas should be filled with bi-level pattern. Percentage rate of black points will be closest match to required grayscale value.

Checked - shading patterns will be used

Unchecked - shading patterns will not be used

Use replicate and trim checked, unchecked

Default: unchecked

property specifies whether the "replicate-and-trim" feature will be used for shading patterns.

Checked - "replicate-and-trim" is used

Unchecked - "replicate-and-trim" is not used

Shading pattern resolution floating point number

Default: 1.0

Defines zoom factor for shading pattern raster.

Try using TIFF compression checked, unchecked

Default: checked

This option allows the user to specify whether AFP backend attempts to compress shading patterns raster images with TIFF encoding.

Checked - AFP Backend attempts compressing shading pattern rasters

Unchecked - AFP Backend does not attempt compressing shading pattern rasters

Use BC:OCA checked, unchecked

Default: checked

Defines the upper level of BC:OCA commands subset.

Unchecked - Do not use BC:OCA commands

Checked - Use Level 1 only

Use G:OCA checked, unchecked

Default: checked

Defines the upper level of G:OCA commands subset.

Unchecked - Do not use G:OCA commands

Checked - Use Level 1 only

Please refer to the section called “Configuring the XEP AFP Generator” of this document for details.

##### AFP Fonts

To view and edit an AFP font and its sub values:

1. Click the AFPFonts drop down box (see Figure 9).

2. Select the font you wish to view/edit.

### Note:

AFP font names are comprised of the word <AFPFont> followed by a comma and the XEP font name, such as <AFPFont, Verdana>.

All sub values are populated based on the font selected.

3. View or edit all AFP font sub values.

1. Click AddAFPFont (see Figure 9).

A dialog box opens containing a list of all supported fonts as displayed in the following figure:

2. Select the font you wish to add to the AFP fonts.

3. Click OK to add the font or Cancel to close the box without adding a new font.

To remove an AFP font:

1. From the AFPFonts drop down box, select the font you wish to remove (see Figure 9).

2. Click RemoveAFPFont.

The selected font is removed.

#### Configuring the Backend for SVG Files

Table 11. XEP Configuration Backends Tab SVG Parameters

Parameter Possible Values Description
Select backend PDF, PostScript, AFP, SVG, HTML, PPML

Default: PDF

Select the output type for which you are configuring the backend.
Backend Parameters
Embed images checked, unchecked

Default: unchecked

If checked, generator embeds external images referenced in the document in the resulting document instance as Base64 strings.

### Note:

SVG images are always embedded as inline SVG.

XEPOUT images content will be converted into appropriate SVG elements

Generate each page in separate file checked, unchecked

Default: unchecked

If checked, output document is a zip files with collection of SVG files, where each file represents a separate page.
Generate first N pages number of pages

Default: 0

Specifies how many pages to generate (0 means all pages).

#### Configuring the Backend for PPML Files

Table 12. XEP Configuration Backends Tab PPML Parameters

Parameter Possible Values Description
Select backend PDF, PostScript, AFP, SVG, HTML, PPML

Default: PDF

Select the output type for which you are configuring the backend.
Backend Parameters
Select target format PDF, PS

Default: PS (PostScript)

Select format for internal pages.

PS - PostScript

PDF - PDF

Select Graphic Arts Conformance level -1,0,1,2

Default: 0

Define wich image-files added to internal resiurces "as is" and wich will be rendered.

0 - Add all files, according to PPML 2.2 Specification.

1 - Add only TIFF and JPEG files as level 1

2 - Add only TIFF and JPEG files as level 2

#### Configuring the Backend for XHTML Files

Table 13. XEP Configuration Backends Tab XHTML Parameters

Parameter Possible Values Description
Select backend PDF, PostScript, AFP, SVG, HTML, PPML

Default: PDF

Select the output type for which you are configuring the backend.
Backend Parameters
Embed images checked, unchecked

Default: unchecked

If checked, generator embeds external images referenced in the document in the resulting document instance as Base64 strings.

### Note:

SVG images are always embedded as Base64 strings.

Generate each page in separate file checked, unchecked

Default: unchecked

If checked, output document is a zip files with collection of XHTML files, where each file represents a separate page. The archive does also contain pages index.
Generate first N pages number of pages

Default: 0

Specifies how many pages to generate (0 means all pages).
Generate XForms checked, unchecked

Default: unchecked

Specifies whether the XHTML backend generates XForms.

### Configuring Languages

Languages can be configured in the Languages tab.

Table 14. XEP Configuration Languages Tab

Parameter Possible Values Description
Supported Languages
Codes free text A list of codes used to refer to the language in the XSL-FO input data.

### Note:

Separate multiple codes with spaces.

Pattern File free text The location of the Pattern file associated with the language selected.

Click Browse to select the location of the Patten file.

Encoding Default: ISP-8859-1 The encoding of the pattern file.
Font Aliases

Font aliases are activated when the language which is associated with them is selected. They take precedence over the aliases specified in the fonts section and may mask them.

Alias free text Provide an alternate name for a font family.
Font Family free text Select the font family corresponding to the alias.
Delete alias

To delete an alias, highlight the alias you wish to delete and click Delete alias.

### Configuring Fonts

Fonts are categorized into families, which is the basic configuration unit in XEP, and then further into groups. A font family is a set of fonts that share a common design but differ in stylistic attributes, such as upright or italic, light or bold. A group consists of several font families wrapped into one container element. Groups can be nested, forming complex font hierarchies.

In the left column, there is the font hierarchy that contains groups, families, and fonts. Click on a node to display and edit its common attributes. Double-click a node to open its children.

Table 15. XEP Configuration - Fonts Tab Parameters

Parameters Possible Values Description
Supported Fonts
Common Attributes
Base Path free text Specifies a common base directory for a group of font families that form a package. Click Browse to select a file location.
Embedded unspecified, true, false Specifies whether the font is embedded in the document or it is external to the file.

### Note:

If the font is external, the rendered file can only be viewed on systems that have the font configured for use with viewing or printing the application.

Subsetted unspecified, true, false

Specifies whether the font is subsetted.

### Note:

If a font is subsetted, the file is not editable.

Font Aliases
Alias free text Provide an alternate name for a font family.
Font Family all font families defined Select the font family corresponding to the alias.
Delete alias

To delete an alias, highlight the alias you wish to delete and click Delete alias.

New Group   Click to create a new group.
New Family   Click to create a new family.
New Font   Click to create a new font.
Delete Node   Click on the node you wish to delete and click Delete Node to delete.

## Configuring XEP via the XEP Configuration File

This topic describes in detail how to configure XEP by creating or modifying an XEP configuration file.

### Configuration Structure

XEP is controlled by a single configuration file which contains core formatting options, fonts available to the formatter, and language-specific data.

The XEP configuration file must always be accessible to the formatter. Methods for locating the configuration file are platform-dependent. Please refer to specific platform documentation for details. By default, the formatter looks for a file named xep.xml in the directory where it is currently running.

The configuration file is an XML document in a special namespace: "http://www.renderx.com/XEP/config". The root of the configuration file is a <config> element which includes three major subsections:

• <options> - Options for XEP rendering core and backends are defined inside the <options> element.

• <fonts> - Fonts configuration is contained inside the <fonts> element.

• <languages> - Hyphenation and language-dependent parameters are configured in the <languages> element.

Some parameters can accept URLs as values. In such cases, the location of the configuration file is used as a base to resolve relative URLs. The base URL can be overridden for any subtree of the configuration file, by utilizing the xml:base attribute.

### Note:

All relative URLs in parameter values stored in a referenced file are resolved with respect to that file, rather than the top-level configuration file. Attribute xml:base in the referrer file has no effect on URLs that are contained in another file.

The use of a monolithic configuration file is usually the most convenient way to store the configuration, as it simplifies switching between different XEP configurations, and facilitates environmental tuneup. However, occasionally it may be wiser to move parts of the configuration into separate files, such as when font configuration is reused across multiple setups. The configuration file supports modularization. Any container element can be moved into a separate XML file whose location is specified by an href attribute.

### Core Options

XEP is controlled by several options which can be set in the configuration file. An option is defined by an <option> element. It has a name and an associated value: name=value. XEP core options are always specified as direct children of the <options> element. The following core options are defined for XEP 4.18:

Table 16. Core Options

Option Possible Values Description
LICENSE

free text

Default: license.xml

The location of the license file.

At startup, XEP looks for a license file, and only runs if the signature on the license matches the public key associated with the specific edition of the formatter. Additionally, this file is used as an access key to XEP online update service.

The parameter can be specified either as a file name in the local file system, or as a URL. In addition to common protocols, data: and resource: URL schemes are supported.

VALIDATE

true, false

Default: true

Controls the input validation.

### Caution

In non-validating mode, XEP uses less memory, and runs faster. However, less errors are intercepted, and the results of formatting are less predictable for malformed print. This setting is discouraged unless your stylesheets are throughly debugged.

DISCARD_IF_NOT_VALID true, false

Default: true

Controls the termination of processing upon unsuccessful validation.
STRICTNESS
• 0 - Relaxed

• 1 - Normal

• 2 - Strict

Default: 1
Determines the validator's level of strictness.
SUPPORT_XSL11 true, false

Default: true

### Caution

DEPRECATED. In XEP 4.19 the stylesheet that used to convert some XSL 1.1 features into respective RenderX extensions has been refactored into Java code in XEP core, for higher performance and lower memory requirements. The option SUPPORT_XSL11 controlled whether the styleheet was run on unput or not.

Starting with XEP 4.19, the respective level of support for some XSL 1.1 features is always turned on.

Turns on/off XSL-FO 1.1 support.
ENABLE_FOLIO true, false

Default: false

Turns on/off support for <fo:folio-prefix> and <fo:folio-suffix> on elements <fo:page-number-citation> and <fo:page-number-citation-last>.

### Note:

This is implemented in Java code as a second pass on input to resolve forward references. This approach may take additional time and memory.

### Note:

Support for <fo:folio-prefix> and <fo:folio-suffix> on <fo:page-number> is always on, irrelevant to the value of ENABLE_FOLIO.

TMPDIR Default: none

The path to the directory for temporary files. If set, this parameter must point to a writable directory, specified either as a path in the local file system or as a file URL. To disable writing temporary files to disk, specify none as the value for this option.

### Note:

To avoid file name clashes, a separate temporary directory should be specified for each process running XEP.

BROKENIMAGE

free text

Default: images/404.gif

The icon inserted as a replacement for broken or missing images.

The parameter can be specified either as a file name in the local file system, or as a URL. In addition to the common protocols, data: and resource: URL schemes are supported.

PAGE_WIDTH Default: 576pt (8 in) Sets the default page width.
PAGE_HEIGHT Default: 792pt (11 in) Sets the default page height.
KERN true, false

Default: true

Controls whether the formatter uses or ignores glyph kerning data to determine character positions.
ENABLE_ACCESSIBILITY true, false

Default: false

Controls whether the formatter uses a special mode to create accessible PDF documents.
ROLE_MAP free text Path to PDF Structure Tags configuration file.

The parameter can be specified either as a file name in the local file system, or as an URL. In addition to the common protocols, data: and resource: URL schemes are supported.

This configuration file can be used to re-map roles of PDF Structure Tags or to eliminate some input XSL-FO structures from PDF Structure Tree. See Appendix F for details.

### Note:

Accessible PDF documents must be tagged. Set ENABLE_ACCESSIBILITY core option to true.

OMIT_FOOTER_AT_BREAK true, false

Default: false

Defines whether tables footers are omitted at breaks by default.
SPOT_COLOR_TRANSLATION_TABLE

free text

Path to Spotcolor-to-CMYK translation table file for use in rgb-icc() function with #SpotColor pseudo profile.

The parameter can be specified either as a file name in the local file system, or as an URL. In addition to the common protocols, data: and resource: URL schemes are supported.

Default: none, all spot colors come out black.

### Note:

This table was hard-coded in previous versions of XEP. Due to license restrictions, it has been removed from the current version. Users are recommended to download this table from PANTONE® site and specify this option accordingly.

IMAGE_MEMOIZE_THRESHOLD

integer

Default: 0

Controls the way SVG images in <fo:instream-foreign-object> elements and data: images are cached.

Provided that TMPDIR is a real directory (not none), any positive value enables caching to disk for such images. This is the way to avoid memory leaks and allow large rendering and generating jobs in relatively small Java heap, as otherwize the images remain complete in memory.

The default value 0 enables the old-style (prior to XEP 4.15) caching: disk is not used and images are cached in memory.

The value 1 means that if such an image has been read back from disk more than once, if will be memoized to provide faster access. This is the correct choice for rendering to the Intermediate Format or for pure generation jobs.

The value 2 suites best for running from XSL FO to PDF or PostScript.

Higher values are for running more than one output generator concurrently.

### Note:

When rendering from XSL FO, minimal heap requirements may be achieved if both VALIDATE and SUPPORT_XSL11 options are disabled.

ENABLE_PAGE_NUMBERS true, false

Default: false

Controls how XEP internally processes page numbering.

### Note:

Turning this value to true is only required if (1) the document contains PDF injection and also (2) the document uses page numbering. However, having this value true breaks backward-compatibility if any XEPOUT post-processing was involved.

See the section called “External Document Injection (PDF)” for more details.

### Configuring Output Formats

XEP can render to several different output formats including PDF, PostScript, AFP, SVG, XPS, XHTML and PPML. Certain properties of output documents can be controlled in two ways:

• Processing Instructions - The processing instructions are used to specify information that does not affect formatting and is safely ignored by the XSL-FO processors.

Each processing instruction begins with a prefix that identifies the output generator to which the instruction is addressed. For the standard PDF generator, the prefix is <?xep-pdf-*>, for PostScript, the prefix is <?xep-postscript-*>, for AFP, the prefix is <?xep-afp-*>, for SVG, the prefix is <?xep-svg-*>, for XHTML, the prefix is <?xep-html-*> and for PPML, the prefix is <?xep-ppml-*>. Generators ignore processing instructions that do not start with their assigned prefixes. In particular, PDF generator instructions are invisible to the PostScript generator, and vice versa.

Instructions that pertain to an entire document should be placed at the top of the document, before or right after the <fo:root> start tag. Instructions that pertain to a single page of the documentation should be specified inside <fo:simple-page-master> object used to generate that page.

• Generator Options - Generator options affect the entire output document. Some features affect only parts of the input document and can only be expressed with processing instructions.

Generator Options can be used to set default settings for output generators. They are specified inside the <options> element in the configuration file. To distinguish them from the core options, they are wrapped in the <generator-options> element. The following table describes the attribute of the <generator-options> tag:

Table 17. Generator-Options Attributes

Attribute Possible Values Description
FORMAT PDF, PS, AFP, SVG, XPS, HTML, PPML Format defines the target output format for the generator.

The following is an example of a fragment which turns on the linearization for the PDF generator and sets initial zoom factor to fit-width for both PostScript and PDF backends:

<generator-options format="PDF">
<option name="LINEARIZE" value="true"/>
<option name="INITIAL_ZOOM" value="fit-width"/>
</generator-options>

<generator-options format="PostScript">
<option name="INITIAL_ZOOM" value="fit-width"/>
</generator-options>

All options can be controlled using processing instructions, and some options can be controlled by use of generator options. The following sections describe available processing instructions and generator options as well where they can be utilized.

#### Unicode Strings in Annotations (PDF, PostScript)

<?xep-pdf-unicode-annotations value?>
<?xep-postscript-unicode-annotations value?>

These processing instructions enable or disable the use of Unicode to represent PDF annotations strings, such as bookmark text and document info. In PostScript, the information is coded in pdfmark operators and used for further conversion to PDF.

The following are possible values:

• true - Enable use of 16-bit Unicode to represent annotation strings. In this mode, XEP uses 8-bit PDF Encoding for strings that can be represented in AdobeStandard character set and 16-bit Unicode for strings containing characters not included in AdobeStandard.

• false - Unicode is not used. Annotations are always represented in 8-bit PDF Encoding; characters not included in the AdobeStandard set are replaced by bullet symbols. This option may be used to enforce compatibility with older versions of PDF software that do not support Unicode, such as Adobe Acrobat 3.0.

Default: true

This feature can also be controlled by UNICODE_ANNOTATIONS option in the configuration file for PDF and PostScript generators.

#### Initial Zoom Factor (PDF, PostScript)

<?xep-pdf-initial-zoom value?>
<?xep-postscript-initial-zoom value?>

These processing instructions specify the magnification factor to be activated when the file is first opened in the PDF viewer. In PostScript, the information is coded in pdfmark operators and used for further conversion to PDF.

The following are possible values:

• auto - Page scaling is not specified.

• fit - The page is scaled to fit completely into the view port.

• fit-width - The page is scaled so that its width matches the width of the view port.

• fit-height - The page is scaled so that its height matches the height of the view port.

• number or percentage - The page is scaled by the number or percentage specified in the enabled box.

Default: auto

This feature can also be controlled by the INITIAL_ZOOM option in the configuration file for PDF and PostScript generators.

#### PDF Initial View (PDF, PostScript)

<?xep-pdf-view-mode value?>
<?xep-postscript-view-mode value?>

These processing instructions set the view mode to be activated in the PDF viewer when the PDF file is rendered and viewed. In PostScript, the information is coded in pdfmark operators and used for further conversion to PDF.

The following are possible values:

• auto - If there are bookmarks in the document, the bookmarks pane is displayed. Otherwise, all auxiliary panes are hidden.

• show-none - All auxiliary panes are hidden.

• show-bookmarks - The bookmarks pane is displayed.

• show-thumbnails - The thumbnails pane is displayed.

• full-screen - The document is displayed in full screen-mode.

Default: auto

This feature can also be controlled by the VIEW_MODE option in the configuration file for PDF and PostScript generators.

#### Logical Page Numbering (PDF)

<?xep-pdf-logical-page-numbering value?>


This processing instruction controls a page numbering scheme for the PDF document.

The following are possible values:

• true - Logical page numbers are written to the PDF file.

• false - Logical page numbers are ignored.

Default: true

### Note:

Adobe Acrobat has a special check box Use logical page numbers. To show logical page numbers of a PDF document, make sure this control is enabled.

This feature can also be controlled by the LOGICAL_PAGE_NUMBERING option in the configuration file for PDF generator.

#### Page Layout (PDF)

<?xep-pdf-page-layout value?>


This processing instruction controls initial page layout when a PDF document is open.

The following are possible values:

• auto - Uses settings of viewer application.

• single-page - Displays one page at a time.

• continuous - Displays pages continuously in one column.

• two-columns-left - Displays pages continuously in two columns, with odd-numbered pages to the left.

• two-columns-right - Displays pages continuously in two columns, with odd-numbered pages to the right.

• two-pages-left - Displays pages in two columns, by two pages at a time, with odd-numbered pages to the left. PDF 1.5.

• two-pages-right - Displays pages in two columns, by two pages at a time, with odd-numbered pages to the right. PDF 1.5.

Default: auto

This feature can also be controlled by the PAGE_LAYOUT option in the configuration file for PDF generator.

#### PDF Viewer Preferences (PDF)

<?xep-pdf-viewer-preferences value?>


This processing instruction controls viewer preferences for a PDF document.

The value is a comma or space separated list of keywords. Each one enables the respective viewer option. The following are supported keywords:

• hide-toolbar - Hides the viewer application's tool bars when the document is active.

• hide-menubar - Hides the viewer application's menu bar when the document is active.

• hide-window-ui - Hides user interface elements in the document's window (such as scroll bars and navigation controls), leaving only the document's contents displayed.

• fit-window - Resizes the document's window to fit the size of the first displayed page.

• center-window - Positions the document's window in the center of the screen.

• display-document-title - Controls whether the window's title bar displays the document title taken from the "title" entry of <rx:meta-info>. If absent, the title bar instead displays the name of the PDF file containing the document.

Default: empty list

This feature can also be controlled by the VIEWER_PREFERENCES option in the configuration file for PDF generator.

#### Treatment of Unused Destinations (PDF, PostScript)

<?xep-pdf-drop-unused-destinations value?>
<?xep-postscript-drop-unused-destinations value?>

These processing instructions specify whether named destinations are created for objects not referenced within the document. In PostScript, the information is coded in pdfmark operators and used for further conversion to PDF.

The following are possible values:

• true - Named destinations are created only for objects used as targets in internal-destination attributes.

• false - Named destinations are created for all objects that have an id attribute.

Default: true

This feature can also be controlled by the DROP_UNUSED_DESTINATIONS option in the configuration file for PDF and PostScript generators.

#### ICC Profile (PDF)

<?xep-pdf-icc-profile URL?>

These processing instructions specify a characterized printing condition. PDF/X and PDF/A-1 specifications require the presence of the characterized printing condition ( /OutputIntent entry in the PDF catalog dictionary). URL is the URI of the ICC file. It should follow the XSL-FO notation for uri-specification: url( ).

#### PDF/X Support (PDF)

<?xep-pdf-pdf-x value?>

This processing instruction sets PDF/X compliance level.

The following are possible values:

• none - No PDF/X restrictions are applied.

• pdf-x-1a - Sets PDF/X-1a compliance level. The rendered PDF will comply with the PDF-X-1a:2001 spec.

• pdf-x-3 - Sets PDF/X-3 compliance level. The rendered PDF will comply with the PDF-X-3:2001 spec.

Default: none

#### PDF/A Support (PDF)

<?xep-pdf-pdf-a value?>

This processing instruction sets PDF/A compliance level.

The following are possible values:

• none - No PDF/A restrictions are applied.

• pdf-a-1a - Sets PDF/A-1a compliance level. The rendered PDF will comply with level A of the PDF/A-1:2005 spec.

### Note:

PDF/A-1a compliant documents must be tagged. Set ENABLE_ACCESSIBILITY core option to true.

• pdf-a-1b - Sets PDF/A-1b compliance level. The rendered PDF will comply with level B of the PDF/A-1:2005 spec.

Default: none

#### Prepress Support (PDF, PostScript)

The following processing instructions define features that support the prepress production workflow.

<?xep-pdf-crop-offset value?>
<?xep-postscript-crop-offset value?>

These processing instructions specify offsets from the meaningful content on the page to the edges of the physical media (/MediaBox entry in the PDF page dictionary). Its value is a series of 1 to 4 length specifiers that set offsets from the edges of the page area (as specified in the XSL-FO input document) to the corresponding edges of the /MediaBox. Rules for expanding the value are the same as for the padding property in XSL-FO.

<?xep-pdf-bleed value?>
<?xep-postscript-bleed value?>

These processing instructions specify the bleeds — an extra space around the page area into which the contents of the page may protrude (/BleedBox entry in the PDF page dictionary). Its value is a series of 1 to 4 length specifiers that set offsets from the edges of the page area (as specified in the XSL-FO input document) to the corresponding edges of the /BleedBox. Rules for expanding the value are the same as for the padding property in XSL-FO.

If bleed values exceed the respective crop offsets, the latter are increased to make room for the bleeds.

<?xep-pdf-crop-mark-width value?>
<?xep-postscript-crop-mark-width value?>

These processing instructions display crop marks on the page. value defines line width for the marks; setting it to 0 disables drawing of crop marks.

<?xep-pdf-bleed-mark-width value?>
<?xep-postscript-bleed-mark-width value?>

These processing instructions display bleed marks on the page. value defines line width for the marks; setting it to 0 disables drawing of bleed marks.

<?xep-pdf-printer-mark URL?>
<?xep-postscript-printer-mark URL?>

These processing instructions specify additional SVG images to be drawn in the offset area surrounding the page (specified by crop-offset and bleed parameters). Printer marks are clipped to the outside of the bleed rectangle. This facility can be used to create registration targets and color bars; the respective sample SVG images are enclosed in XEP distribution. URL is the URL to the location of the SVG file. It should follow the XSL-FO notation for uri-specification: url( ).

<?xep-pdf-pdf-version value?>

The following are possible values:

• 1.3

• 1.4

• 1.5

• any higher version is allowed here, since PDF versions are backward compatible.

Default: 1.4

### Note:

When set to 1.3, advanced features of PDF 1.4 are disabled.

This feature can also be controlled by PDF_VERSION option in the configuration file for the PDF generator.

#### Compression of PDF Streams (PDF)

<?xep-pdf-compress value?>

This processing instruction controls compression of content streams in PDF.

The following are possible values:

• true - PDF streams are compressed using the Flate algorithm.

• false - PDF streams are not compressed. This option is useful for debugging.

Default: true

This feature can also be controlled by the COMPRESS option in the configuration file for the PDF generator.

#### Linearization (PDF)

<?xep-pdf-linearize value?>

This processing instruction controls linearization (also known as Web optimization) of the PDF output.

The following are possible values:

• true - PDF is linearized. This options is used to prepare documents for HTML output.

• false - PDF is not linearized.

Default: false

This feature can also be controlled by the LINEARIZE option in the configuration file for the PDF generator.

#### Document Security (PDF)

The following processing instructions control PDF security settings.

<?xep-pdf-ownerpassword value?>

This processing instruction sets an owner password for the PDF document to value. Owner password gives its holder full control over the PDF document. This unlimited access includes the ability to change the document's passwords and access privilegies.

### Note:

Adobe Acrobat by default applies user's access restrictions to owners too. To remove some of these restrictions, go to 'Document Properties -> Security' and choose 'Change Settings' option.

<?xep-pdf-userpassword value?>

This processing instruction sets a user password for the PDF document to value. Holders of user password are subject to access restrictions; only operations included in the privilege list are authorized.

<?xep-pdf-userprivileges value?>

Sets the default privilege list for users accessing the rendered document with user password. The value must be a sequence composed of the following tokens:

• print - Enables printing the document.

• modify - Enables editing the document.

• copy - Enables copying text and images from the document to the clipboard.

• annotate - Enables adding notations to the document and changing the field values.

Tokens can be specified in any order, separated by commas and/or spaces.

### Note:

If neither user password nor owner password is set, security is disabled and the rendered PDF is not encrypted.

If the user password is set and the owner password is not set, then the latter is set equal to the former. This enables password protection on the PDF file, but gives password holder full control over the document: no distinction is made between user and owner.

If the owner password is set and the user password is not set, the rendered PDF document can be viewed by anyone without entering a password. However, operations on this file will be restricted to privileges specified in the user privilege list; other operations will require authentication with the owner password.

Default: Security disabled (neither of the passwords are set). Default privilege list is annotate.

These features can also be controlled by the USERPASSWORD, OWNERPASSWORD, and USERPRIVILEGES options in the configuration file for the PDF generator.

### Note:

Setting passwords through a configuration file poses obvious security risks, and is not recommended. Use processing instructions to enable file protection.

#### PostScript Language Level (PostScript)

<?xep-postscript-language-level value?>

This processing instruction sets target PostScript language level.

The following are possible values:

• 2

• 3

### Note:

When the language level is set to 2, some advanced features and font flavours are not available.

Default: 3

This feature can also be controlled by the LANGUAGE_LEVEL option in the configuration file for the PostScript generator.

#### EPS Graphics Treatment (PostScript)

<?xep-postscript-clone-eps value?>

This processing instruction controls whether EPS graphics are included in the PostScript output using forms mechanism, or by pasting their contents at each occurrence.

The following are possible values:

• true - EPS graphics are pasted into the output stream at each occurrence. This may lead to a substantial growth of the resulting file size.

• false - EPS graphics are in PostScript form. This minimizes the file size, however, some EPS images cannot be processed this way and it may corrupt the PostScript code.

Default: true

This feature can also be controlled by CLONE_EPS option in the configuration file for the PostScript generator.

#### Page Device Control (PostScript)

<?xep-postscript-page-device entryname entryvalue?>

This processing instruction sets a single entry entryname in the page device dictionary to value entryvalue. Entry name must be a valid PostScript name (with or without leading slash). The value is specified as an arbitrary PostScript expression. Entry name and value must be separated by whitespace. There can be more than one such instruction, each setting its entry.

### Warning

XEP does not check the spelling of either the entry name or the value supplied in this instruction. Wrong code passed with this option can invalidate the whole output file.

To set page device options for the whole document, the respective instructions should appear at the top of the document, before the <fo:root> element. Such entries are set in the document setup section and cleaned up in the document trailer.

To control page device settings for a single page, the instructions should be specified inside the <fo:simple-page-master> object used to generate the page. In this case, page setup parameters are modified in the page setup section and reset in the page trailer.

#### Invoke Medium Map (AFP)

<?xep-afp-invoke-medium-map name="map-name" [force="true"]?>

This processing instruction defines the page to be associated with medium-map by adding IMM instruction before the page's BPG.

See the section called “ Other FORMDEF Instructions” for more information on its usage and syntax.

#### Page Labeling (PostScript)

<?xep-postscript-page-label value?>

This processing instruction changes the label argument of %%Page PostScript command. This PI should be inserted to fo:simple-page-master element.

The following are possible values:

• value - Any text. The text may contain an optional token %d that will be automatically replaced with incrementing integer values, starting with 1.

### Note:

Any time the document page contains xep-postscript-custom-comment Processing Instruction with value different to the previous one, the incrementing counter will be automatically reset to 1.

Default: blank

<?xep-postscript-custom-comment value?>

This processing instruction allows inserting custom comments into PostScript document.

The following are possible values:

• value - Any valid PostScript comment.

### Note:

If the PI is inserted into fo:root element or before it, the value is placed in the document header, before %%EndComments. If the PI is inserted into fo:simple-page-master element, the value is placed in every page which uses this fo:simple-page-master as a template, after %%EndPageSetup comment. If the PI is inserted into fo:page-sequence element, the value will be placed for each page of the sequence, after %%EndPageSetup comment. The value will be validated before inserting to document, all "%" symbols will be removed, the first symbol will be capitalized and the value will be prepended with one (for page level comments) or two (for document level comments) "%" symbols.

Default: no comment.

#### Image Inline Threshold (PostScript)

<?xep-postscript-image-inline-threshold value?>

This processing instruction controls the placement of images in PostScript document. Images that appear just a few times in a PostScript document are placed in Page Setup section of the pages where they are used, and not in Document Setup. This allows the printers to read image data when required, keep in memory for a short time, and safely flush it after the page is printed. In general, this feature allows to print larger documents.

The following are possible values:

• value - An integer value greater or equal to -1.

Assuming the value is n, the behaviour of the PostScript backend is defined by the following rules:

• If an image appears in the document more than n times, it goes to Document Setup.

• If an image appears n times or less, it is placed in Page Setup on the page(s) where it is used.

• The default value 0 makes all images be in Document Setup section. This is the old behaviour, equivalent to the absence of this option.

• The value -1 makes all images be in Page Setup section.

Default: 0.

This feature can also be controlled by IMAGE_INLINE_THRESHOLD option in the configuration file for PostScript generator.

#### Images Treatment in XML Output (XEP, SVG, XHTML)

<?xep-out-embed-images value?>
<?xep-svg-embed-images value?>
<?xep-html-embed-images value?>

This processing instruction controls whether the XML (SVG, XHTML) output generator embeds external images referenced in the document in the resulting document instance as Base64 strings.

The following are possible values:

• true - All images are stored inside the resulting file using the data: URL scheme.

• false - Images are not embedded. In the generated XML file, images are referenced by their original URLs.

Default: false

This feature can also be controlled by the EMBED_IMAGES option in the configuration file for the XML output generator.

#### Break pages (SVG/XHTML)

<?xep-svg-break-pages value?>
<?xep-html-break-pages value?>

This processing instruction controls whether the SVG/XHTML output generator produces output document as a zip-file with collection of separate pages.

The following are possible values:

• true - The output document is a zip-file with collection of SVG/XHTML files, where each file represents a separate page. The archive with xhtml pages does also contain pages index.

• false - The output document is one SVG/XHTML document. All pages will be represented with appropriate SVG/XHTML elements.

Default: false

This feature can also be controlled by the BREAK_PAGES option in the configuration file for the SVG/XHTML output generator.

#### Generate first N pages (SVG/XHTML)

<?xep-svg-generate-first-n-pages value?>
<?xep-html-generate-first-n-pages value?>

This processing instruction specifies number of pages from begining to be generated (0 means all pages).

Default: 0

This feature can also be controlled by the GENERATE_FIRST_N_PAGES option in the configuration file for the SVG/XHTML output generator.

#### Generate XForms (XHTML)

<?xep-html-xforms value?>

This processing instruction controls whether the XHTML backend generates XForms.

Default: false

This feature can also be controlled by the XFORMS option in the configuration file for the XHTML output generator.

### External Document Injection (PDF)

<fo:page-sequence rx:insert-document="url(documentname.pdf)">

This attribute allows inserting the entire document into the output stream. At the moment, injection is supported in PDF generator only, and only PDF documents can be injected.

The following are possible values:

• value - Any valid URL to a PDF document.

The PDF document is inserted before the <fo:page-sequence> where it is defined. The <fo:page-sequence> itself is not suppressed, e.g. its content will appear in the result document normally, just after the pages taken from the injected PDF.

### Note:

Current version only supports injection of entire PDF documents. If only certain pages are to be injected, consider injecting individual pages, as described in the section called “PDF” section, or use external tools to extract a range of pages from a larger PDF document.

The optional rx:document-content-type attribute on <fo:page-sequence> elements can be used to override how XEP processes the content of injected document. The only possible value is application/pdf. If the attribute is omitted (default), the content-type will be detected automatically.

### Note:

The injected PDF inherently changes page numbering. Consider the following example:

Say, we have a document that contains following:

• An <fo:page-sequence> that produces pages 1..41

• <fo:page-sequence rx:insert-document="url(documentname.pdf)">

where documentname.pdf contains three pages (42..44). The <fo:page-sequence> generates a single page that should be number 45.

Since XSL-FO formatting, including page number calculation, occurs before PDF injection, the second <fo:page-sequence> will get page number 42, while it should be 45. The further pages will also contain wrong links. To mitigate this, a special post-formatting run is applied just before the XEPOUT is sent to the output stream. During this run, the page references are adjusted, e.g. the page numbers are incremented by 3 (number of pages in an injected PDF) to match actual numbering. XEP versions prior to 4.22 have not marked page numbers in any way, so it was impossible to distinguish them from the common text, hence to adjust page numbers. XEP 4.22 introduces a core option ENABLE_PAGE_NUMBERS that enables marking such text elements with <xep:page-numbers> tag and thus makes it possible to adjust the values when necessary. One doesn't need to enable this option if no page number calculation occurs in the document. However, if page numbers are calculated, and any PDF injection occurs, this option must be turned to true, and any post-processing scripts must be adjusted to recognize <xep:page-numbers> along with the usual <xep:text>.

### Configuring Fonts

Fonts can be configured inside the <fonts> element. It contains descriptors for font families, font groups, and font aliases. The formatter uses them to map XSL-FO font properties to actual fonts.

#### Fonts and Font Families

Fonts are categorized into families, which is the basic configuration unit in XEP, and then further into groups. A font family is a set of fonts that share a common design but differ in stylistic attributes, such as upright or italic, light or bold. All data pertinent to one font family is contained inside a <font-family> element.

The <font-family> element contains the attribute described in the following table:

Table 18. Font-Family Attributes

Attribute Possible Values Description
name free text

### Note:

Family names must be unique within the configuration file. They are matched against the respective XSL-FO property value.

Identifies the font family.

When no font family is specified in the input file, the default is defined by default-family attribute of the <font> element. Its value is a family name that must be present in the file, otherwise a configuration error occurs.

The following is an example of a font family descriptor:

<font-family name="Courier">
<font>
<font-data afm="Courier.afm"/>
</font>
<font style="oblique">
<font-data afm="Courier-Oblique.afm"/>
</font>
<font weight="bold">
<font-data afm="Courier-Bold.afm"/>
</font>
<font weight="bold" style="oblique">
<font-data afm="Courier-BoldOblique.afm"/>
</font>
</font-family>

Inside the family descriptor, there are one or more entries for individual fonts that belong to the family. A font entry is specified by a <font> element. It has attributes to specify features of the font within the family, such as weight, style, and variant. For a font to be selected by a formatter, these attributes should match font-weight, font-style, and font-variant specified in the XSL-FO document.

##### Embedding and Subsetting Fonts

Most fonts can be either embedded into the resulting PDF or PostScript document or specified as fonts external to the file. If the font is external, the rendered file can only be viewed on systems that have the font configured for use with viewing or printing the application. Typically, all fonts are embedded except for 14 standard Adobe PDF fonts. For some applications, embedding basic fonts may also be required. Embedding of a font is controlled by the embed attribute of the <font> element describing the font.

An embedded font can be subsetted, which means that instead of storing the entire font in the document, XEP leaves only those glyphs that are actually used in the text. This option reduces the document size but makes it unsuitable for subsequent editing. Subsetting is governed by the subset attribute of the <font> element.

To provide a more compact notation, the embed and subset properties are inheritable down the configuration tree: when specified on a node in the configuration file, they affect all <font> descendants of that node. For example, embed/subset attributes specified in <font-family> will affect all fonts in that family; placing them on <font-group> will set the respective parameters for all fonts in all families in the group (unless overridden on some descendant node), etc.

XEP does not support embedding and subsetting of native AFP fonts in AFP documents so far.

### Note:

TrueType and OpenType fonts may contain internal flags that prohibit their embedding or subsetting. XEP honors these flags and may refuse to embed or subset your font if the respective action is not authorized by the flags inside it.

##### AFP Fonts

To use an AFP font with XEP, it is necessary to obtain AFP font files containing Codepage and Charsets. An URL location to the Codepage file should be specified in the codepage-file attribute of <font-family> element and attribute codepage-name should contain the name of corresponding Codepage. Font encoding can be specified in encoding attribute of <font-family> element (default value is Cp500).

The size (for raster AFP fonts) should be specified in the size attribute of the <font> element. URL to Charset file should be specified in charset-file attribute of <font-data> element and attribute charset-name should contain the name of Charset respectively.

Example: suppose we have a raster AFP font with Codepage file T1EDO500.CDP and Charset file C0V08000.CHS containing metrics for characters (size 10, italic). Its descriptor in the configuration file can look like this:

<font-family name="AfpFont"
codepage-name="T1EDO500"
codepage-file="T1EDO500.CDP"
encoding="Cp1146">
<font size="10" style="italic">
<font-data charset-name="C0V08000" charset-file="C0V08000.CHS"/>
</font>
...
</font-family>
##### Algorithmic Slanting

Algorithmic slanting can be applied to fonts in order to produce oblique or backslanted versions of fonts that do not have separate outlines for these styles. This is done by placing a <transform> element inside the <font> descriptor. The slant angle is specified in the slant-angle attribute on the <transform> node. Its value sets the angle in degrees. Positive angles slant the text clockwise, producing oblique versions; negative ones rotate it counterclockwise, producing backslanted font styles.

XEP does not support algorithmic slanting of AFP fonts so far.

If a font family contains no entry for oblique or italic font style, the oblique font is produced algorithmically by applying a default slanting of 12°. Similarly, a missing backslant font is synthesized from the nearest upright version, slanting it by -12°.

##### Ligaturization

Fonts can be instructed to contract certain sequences of characters into ligatures. A set of ligature characters is specified in the ligatures attribute of the <font> element, as a space- or comma-separated list of ligature characters. The characters must be Unicode ligature codepoints.

### Note:

In XEP, ligaturization support is basic: only ligatures registered in Unicode can be used. Moreover, ligaturization does not work for characters that undergo contextual shaping: this excludes all Arabic ligatures from consideration. Further versions of XEP are expected to improve ligaturization support.

##### Initial Encoding

Type 1 fonts may have different encoding tables. (Encoding table is an essential part of a Type 1 font and matches character codes to glyph names). According to PDF Spec, there are 3 predefined encodings: WinAnsi, MacRoman, and MacExpert. There is also the built-in font's encoding. All other encodings are treated as custom ones.

In Adobe Acrobat it is possible to see each Type 1 font encoding used in a document (Document Properties panel -> Fonts tab -> Encoding field for each Type 1 font). The value of this field may be one of:

• Standard - The font's built-in encoding

• Ansi - Windows Code Page 1252 (Windows ANSI)

• Roman - Mac OS standard encoding for Latin text in Western writing systems

• Expert - An encoding for use with expert fonts

• Custom - A custom encoding

The same values (but 'Custom') may be used for initial-encoding.

To provide a more compact notation, the initial-encoding is inheritable down the configuration tree: when specified on a node in the configuration file, it affects all <font> descendants of that node. For example, initial-encoding attribute specified on <font-family> will affect all fonts in that family; placing it on <font-group> will set the respective parameter for all fonts in all families in the group (unless overridden on some descendant node), etc.

### Note:

This attribute only affects the first encoding table for a Type 1 font it is specified on. If the document contains glyps (from this font) that do not belong to the specified first encoding table, XEP will add more encoding tables which will all be treated as Custom.

#### Font Groups

Several font families can be wrapped into a <font-group> container element. Groups can be nested, forming complex font hierarchies. This element does not affect font mapping and serves only for logical grouping of font families. In particular, it is often convenient to use it as a host for the xml:base property, to specify a common base directory for a group of font families that form a package. Another suggested use of <font-group> is for remoting: contents of the font group can be placed into a separate file and reused across multiple font configurations.

The only attribute specific to <font-group> is label, which assigns a name to the group. The name serves only for record keeping, no constraints are imposed on it.

#### Font Aliases

XEP uses font aliases to provide alternate names for font families and group several families into one “logical” family. A font alias is defined by a <font-alias> element. The element has two attributes, both required: name is the name of the “logical” font family, and value is a comma-separated list of font family names to which it should resolve. The list may contain a single font family; in this case, the alias merely provides an alternate name for it.

### Note:

Aliases always resolve to “real” families and not to the other aliases. Chained alias resolution is not possible in XEP.

### Configuring Languages

Language-specific configuration parameters are stored in the third major section of the configuration file, inside a <languages> element. The <languages> element contains one or more <language> elements, and each <language> element stores information pertaining to a single language. The language is identified by two attributes:

• name - The name of the language.

• code - A list of codes used to refer to the language in the XSL-FO input data. Multiple codes are separated by spaces.

In XEP two kinds of data are configurable in this section of the configuration files:

• Hyphenation patterns

• Language-specific font aliases

#### Configuring Hyphenation

XEP uses TEX hyphenation patterns for hyphenation data. Details on hyphenation algorithm are described in Appendix B.

A hyphenation pattern file is associated with a language by placing a <hyphenation> element into the language section in the configuration file. Its pattern attribute specifies the URL to the TEX pattern file. An optional encoding attribute specifies the encoding of the pattern file; if it is missing, ISO-8859-1 is assumed.

#### Language-Specific Font Aliases

Language sections may also contain <font-alias> elements, described above in the section called “Font Aliases”. These aliases are activated when the language is selected in the input XSL-FO document; they take precedence over aliases specified in the <fonts> section of the configuration file and may mask them.

## Resolution of External Entities and URIs

XEP can be configured to use a specific entity resolver for all SAX parsing calls inside it. The resolver class is specified by a Java system property com.renderx.sax.entityresolver. It must have a public constructor with no arguments, and implement org.xml.sax.EntityResolver interface.

Similarly, XEP can assign a user-defined class to resolve URIs in calls to document() function, <xsl:import>, and <xsl:include> XSLT directives. The class name is specified in com.renderx.jaxp.uriresolver system property; it must provide a public default constructor, and implement javax.xml.transform.URIResolver interface.

The principal use of these features is to add support for XML catalogs to XEP, to avoid repeated loading of common DTDs and stylesheets from the internet. For example, the following setting configures XEP to use XML entity and URI resolver from Apache project (provided that you have included resolver classes in the classpath, and properly configured it):

java
-Dcom.renderx.sax.entityresolver=org.apache.xml.resolver.tools.CatalogResolver
-Dcom.renderx.jaxp.uriresolver=org.apache.xml.resolver.tools.CatalogResolver
…

XML catalogs resolver is included into xml-commons tools available as a part of Apache project. For further information about catalogs and entity resolution, and for resolver download please proceed to Apache website: http://xml.apache.org/commons/components/resolver/index.html.

## Generating AFP Documents

AFP documents can be generated through the following:

• XEP Assistant - When formatting the XML file using the XEP Assistant, select AFP as the format, as described in XEP Assistant.

• Command Line - Using the command line, AFP documents as well as AFP resource files can be generated.

• To generate an AFP document, use the parameter -afp:

-afp <afp document file name>

• To generate an AFP resource file, use the parameter -DH4AFP.RESOURCE:

-DH4AFP.RESOURCE=<afp resource file name>

### Note:

Since -DH4AFP.RESOURCE is a generator option parameter, it must precede all other parameters like -xml, -xsl, -fo, -xep, -pdf, -ps, -afp, -svg.

Alternatively, you can use the configuration file variable. For more details, refer to the section called “Configuring the XEP AFP Generator”.

## Fonts

Non-CID OTF fonts are currently supported which allows for higher AFP standard conformance. Fonts larger than 36 pt can be processed as well, which produces better AFP documents.

### Font Mapping

XEP supports two different ways using fonts in AFP generator:

• The first variant is based on native Non-CID Open Type Fonts (OTF) that correspond F:OCA specifications. It is described in section the section called “Supported AFP Fonts”. This variant requires a set of native AFP font files and allows using native AFP fonts metrics.

You may also find useful information on the section called “AFP Fonts”.

• Another variant of configuration lets to map AFP native fonts to non-AFP fonts supported by XEP to obtain font metrics. In this case, the metrics of TrueType/OpenType fonts are used for formatting; after that, when generating AFPDS stream, XEP uses mapped font values to refer in result document.

Therefore, AFP generator for XEP supports all kinds of fonts supported by XEP.

Mapping FO fonts and native AFP fonts can be configured in the XEP configuration file, in the AFP generator configuration section. Please refer to the section called “Configuring Fonts” for details.

## Images

### Image Support

Raster image handling in AFP generator for XEP is based on target printer's capability of supported image formats. If certain image format is supported by target AFP printer, AFP generator for XEP puts the unchanged image into the AFP data stream. Otherwise, it reads entire image raster and compresses it into one of known native image formats.

Image Compression Algorithm Properties
Bi-level images 0x82 G4 MMR—Modified, 1 bit per pixel, RLE-compressed
Grayscale images 0x03 8 bits per pixel, uncompressed

### Note:

Modern AFP printers support advanced raster image formats such as JPEG. It is highly recommended to use native images if your printter supports it because XEP does not need to decompress entire raster. This provides with fewer memory consumption, gives significant performance boost (up to 10 times), and allows for producing smaller output files.

By default, no native image formats are allowed.

To find out whether your printer supports certain data formats, refer your printer's manual.

The following formats are used for raster compression:

You may refer the section called “Configuring Data Types” section to find how to configure native image formats.

### Note:

In AFP, bi-level images are mixed with their background. Therefore, white points appear transparent.

### Referencing Images

Images can be included once, and referenced multiple times. This allows for reduced output size and improved performance. This feature is very useful for repeating images, like corporate logos, headers, footers, etc.

The image can be included in the main AFP output file, or in a separate resource file as described in the section called “Other Configuration Options”.

### Image Clipping

If a source document refers to an image, and the image is bigger than the containing block, normally it should be clipped. AFP Backend correctly clips only those images having resolution equal to (or higher than) the AFP document's resolution. Otherwise, the entire image appears, probably overlapping with other page elements positioned to the right or below the image container.

## Highlight Color Support

Highlight color is a special case of color encoding, when a solid colorant used (contrary to other schemes like RGB, CMYK, etc). In XSL-FO, this kind of encoding is called Spot Color. XEP AFP Backend treats spot color in source document and produces AFP Highlight Color instructions within the MO:DCA-P stream.

Highlight Color has the following major attributes:

• Colorant name - usually, includes colorant vendor name and catalogue ID of the color. For example, "PANTONE Orange 021 M".

• Tint - percentage of colorant covering target area. AFP printers are capable to cover certain percentage of target area, making the color opaque.

Each value must be given either in percents (from 0% to 100%) or as a number in the interval from 0 to 1.

### Note:

When the Highlight Color space is specified in a target repeating group, the percent coverage parameter is normally supported only for areas such as object areas and graphic fill areas. For other data types this parameter is normally simulated with 100% coverage.

• Shading - besides tint, AFP devices are capable to cover certain percentage with main color (usually Black). This attribute defines which percentage will be covered with main color.

• Alt (alternative) color - used in XSL-FO to define most-close analogue to Spot Color. This can be either CMYK, RGB, or Grayscale value.

AFP Generator uses the following algorithm of Spot Colors identification:

• AFP Backend for XEP finds spot-color in source document. It looks up the configuration file for Highlight Color Index defined within.

• If Colorant ID found, AFP Backend uses the ID associated.

• Otherwise (Colorant ID not found), AFP Backend registers the Highlight Color within the range of Custom Colors defined in MO:DCA (ID 0x0100-0xFF00).

• Next time spot-color with same colorant used within the same document, it will obtain the same ID. Automatically obtained ID's are not saved for further use after the operation is completed.

## Graphics Support

Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is a language for describing two-dimensional vector graphics in XML.

AFP Backend 4.26.503 has limited support of SVG primitives. They are rendered as instructions listed within G:OCA command set.

The following G:OCA objects are currently supported:

• Lines (svg:line).

Lines are considered to be strokes of a pen that draws on the canvas.

The size, color, and style of the pen stroke are part of the line's presentation. These characteristics are in the style attribute.

Currently "stroke" (color of line) and "stroke-width" (width of line) characteristics of Style attribute are supported.

For example:

<svg:line x1="20" x2="20" y1="62" y2="8"
style="stroke-width:6; stroke: blue;"/>
• Rectangles.

The interior of the rectangle can be filled with the specified fill color.

If a fill color was not specified, the interior of the shape will be filled with white.

The outline of the rectangle is drawn with strokes, whose characteristics can be specified by the same way as for lines.

"fill" (fill color), "stroke" (outline color) and "stroke-width" (width of outline) attributes are supported.

If the fill color specified as "none", then only outline of the rectangle will be drawn with color specified in "stroke" attribute.

For example:

<rect x="60" y="60" width="80" height="70"
fill="none" stroke="yellow" stroke-width="5"/>
• Paths.

Paths represent the geometry of the outline of an object, defined in terms of <moveto> (set a new current point), lineto (draw a straight line), curveto (draw a curve using a cubic Bézier), arc (elliptical or circular arc), and closepath (close the current shape by drawing a line to the last moveto) elements.

Full implementation of Path processing has been made.

Supported commands:

• The "moveto" command.

The "moveto" commands (M or m) establish a new current point.

• The "closepath" command.

The "closepath" (Z or z) ends the current subpath and causes an automatic straight line to be drawn from the current point to the initial point of the current subpath.

• The "lineto" commands.

The various "lineto" commands (L, l, H, h, V, v) draw straight lines from the current point to a new point.

• Cubic Bézier curves (C, c, S and s).

A cubic Bézier segment is defined by a start point, an end point, and two control points.

Also includes filled areas with border in form of Bézier curve.

• Quadratic Bézier curves (Q, q, T and t).

A quadratic Bézier segment is defined by a start point, an end point, and one control point.

Also includes filled areas with border in form of Bézier curve.

• Ellipstical arcs (A and a).

An elliptical arc segment draws a segment of an ellipse. Various kinds of elliptical arcs are supported.

### Note:

Internally, XEP transforms all arcs to Bézier curves.

Also includes filled areas with border in form of arc.

Filled areas may be formed by any combination of lines, arcs, and Bézier curves. AFP Generator correctly processes such case of svg:path and makes areas filled correctly.

Coordinate system transformations are also supported.

A new user space can be established by specifying transformations in the form of a "transform" attribute on a container element or graphics element or "viewBox" attribute on an "svg", "symbol", "marker", "pattern" and the "view" element.

The "transform" and "viewBox" attributes transform user space coordinates and lengths on sibling attributes on the given element and all of its descendants.

The following logic elements are currently supported:

• Groups (svg:g).

• Rotation of SVG block.

<fo:block-container reference-orientation="270">

Possible values are: "0", "90", "180", and "270".

• Nested SVG (svg:svg) and Viewbox (svg:viewbox) are supported.

Partial implementation of "transform" and "viewBox" attributes processing has been made.

Transformations can be nested, in which case the effect of the transformations are cumulative.

• SVG text.

XEP has limited support of SVG text. Only raster fonts are supported.

If SVG text is enclosed into viewbox, the actual font size is calculated accordingly.

In the following sample, SVG block is stretched 2 times by X and Y axis, and font of size 10 is used.

<svg:svg width="400" height="100" viewBox="0 0 200 50">
<svg:text style="font-family:Helvetica; font-size:10; font-weight:bold"
text-anchor="middle" x="100" y="25">
Sample
</svg:text>
</svg:svg>

The actual font size will be equal to 20.

If viewbox zoom factors by X and Y axis are different, root-mean-square value for font size is used.

In the following sample, SVG block is stretched 3 times by X axis and remain the same by Y axis.

<svg:svg width="600" height="50" viewBox="0 0 200 50">
<svg:text style="font-family:Helvetica; font-size:10; font-weight:bold"
text-anchor="middle" x="100" y="25">
Sample
</svg:text>
</svg:svg>

The actual font size will be calculated as original_size * square_root((zoomX^2 + zoomY^2)/2) and equal to 22.

For SVG text, only the following rotation values are possible: "0", "90", "180", and "270". Nested rotations of svg blocks and viewbox are supported.

• Markers.

The "marker" element defines the graphics that is to be used for drawing arrowheads or polymarkers on a given "path", "line", "polyline" or "polygon" element.

Not supported or limited support:

• Gradient fill for rectangles is not supported: solid fill color used.

• Other primitives not listed above are not supported by current version.

## Barcodes Support

A barcode is a machine-readable representation of information in a visual format.

Most types of barcodes stores data in the width and spacings of printed parallel lines.

Barcodes are simple to represent as black rectangles separated by white spaces, but they have proved to be difficult to generate accurately. Bar and space widths are often computed in a complex manner and checking digits additionally complicates the process.

AFP Backend uses XSLT stylesheets to implement the computational part and SVG to draw the image and text. These stylesheets are available for free download from RenderX site:

http://www.renderx.com/demos/barcodes.html

As soon as XSL-FO 1.0 does not have native support of barcodes, technical implementation of them is based on SVG. These stylesheets render barcodes as SVG primitives, including additional <desc> tag containing the value and parameters of barcode rendered.

AFP Backend processes this tag and decides whether it is barcode or another SVG graphic.

If barcode tag is found, the barcode is rendered with BC:OCA or G:OCA, depending on which is enabled. This is done with USE_BCOCA_LEVEL and USE_GOCA_LEVEL configuration parameters. If both BC:OCA and G:OCA are enabled, BC:OCA overrides. Please refer configuration parameters section about configuring BC:OCA and G:OCA.

### Note:

http://www.renderx.com/tools/word2fo.html

Currently, the following types of Barcodes are supported by AFP Backend:

• EAN-13

• EAN-8

• UPC-A

• Codabar

• Code2of5

• Code3of9 (with limitations)

• Code128 (with limitations)

• 4state-AU (with limitations)

Please refer the section called “Limitations of the XEP AFP Generator” for more details.

For example:

<svg:svg xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"
width="34.98mm" height="27.39mm">
<desc xmlns:mydoc="http://example.org/mydoc">
<barcode value="9780444505156" type="EAN-13"/>
</desc>
<svg:rect y="0" height="24.915mm" x="3.63mm"
width="0.33mm" style="fill: black;"/>
<svg:rect y="0" height="24.915mm" x="4.29mm"
width="0.33mm" style="fill: black;"/>
...
<svg:rect y="0" height="23.1mm" x="4.95mm"
width="0.99mm" style="fill: black;"/>
</svg:svg>

<desc/> tag must have single child node <barcode/>. The following attributes are available for <barcode/> tag:

• value contains string value of the barcode

• type one of the values listed in supported types:

• EAN-13

• EAN-8

• UPC-A

• Codabar

• Code2of5

• Code3of9

• Code128

• 4state-AU

### Note:

If you develop custom stylesheets implementing Barcodes, please note that barcode MUST be alone item within SVG block if barcodes are generated with BC:OCA. That is, AFP Generator skips SVG content after <desc> tag.

## FORMDEF Resource

### What is a FORMDEF Resource?

FORMDEF is the AFP 'forms definition.' It defines the parameters of the physical page environment. The parameters including the following:

• Paper size and rotation.

• Simplex or duplex printing mode.

• Printing several logical document pages on the same sheet.

• Number of copies.

• Paper cutting, punching, etc.

• Paper source selection.

• Overlays for physical and logical pages.

• Finishing documents.

FORMDEF can be attached to a single document, or to multiple documents. It is contained in the resource section of a printfile.

### Note:

The XEP AFP Generator has limited support for generation of FORMDEF resources. In general, complex features like overlays and page segments are not supported.

### Generating a Document with FORMDEF Resource

FORMDEF is a MO:DCA resource. Therefore, two steps are required in order to generate a document with FORMDEF.

1. You must specify the resource file on the XEP command line.

2. You must concatenate the resource file and the document file or files, in order to form a print file.

### Note:

If a resource file is not specified, the FORMDEF instructions are processed but not generated in the resulting AFP file.

### FORMDEF Processing Instructions

FORMDEF resource is described in the source document as a set of special processing instructions. These instructions may appear at the top of the XSL-FO document before or after the <fo:root> element, or within page masters. Each processing instruction has a pseudo-element which is commonly used in XML similar to an <?xml ?> instruction.

FORMDEF processing instructions are divided into two main groups:

• Non-repeating instructions - They may only have one instance within a document.

The following are non-repeating instructions:

• xep-afp-form-definition

• Repeating instructions - They may appear in a document multiple times.

The following are repeating instructions:

• xep-afp-page-definition

• xep-afp-copy-group

Repeating instructions contain a pseudo-element "id," which uniquely identifies each instance of an instruction of the same type within a document. When XEP processes repeating instructions, only the first instance of an instruction of the id is processed. All other instructions with the same id are ignored. If an instruction is inside a page master, it is reproduced on each page generated by this page master, but XEP processes only the first occurrence of this instruction, as instruction ids are same.

#### FORMDEF Syntax

The syntax and semantics of FORMDEF processing instructions are as follows:

• xep-afp-form-definition - Defines the FORMDEF resource.

Format:

<?xep-afp-form-definition
sheet-height="size-value" sheet-width="size-value"?>

Attributes:

• sheet-height - Defines the sheet height. Values may contain simple size expressions such as, "3in" or "10pt."

• sheet-width - Defines the sheet width. Values may contain simple size expressions such as, "3in" or "10pt."

Both sheet-height and sheet-width are mandatory attributes.

• xep-afp-page-definition - Defines a logical page on a sheet of paper or other medium.

Format:

<?xep-afp-page-definition id="id-number" x0=" size-value" y0="size-value"
orientation="ori-value" type="type-value"?>

Attributes:

• id - Instruction identifier. The value must be a decimal number.

• x0, y0 - The coordinates of the logical page presentation on a physical sheet. Values may contain simple size expressions.

• orientation - The orientation of the logical page on a physical sheet. Possible values are 0, 90, 180, or 270.

• type - The type of logical page which defines the common page layout. Possible values are the following:

default-front-page, default-back-page, p1-front-page, p1-back-page, p2-front-page, p2-back-page, p3-front-page, p3-back-page, p4-front-page, p4-back-page, default-front, default-back, p1-front, p1-back, p2-front, p2-back, p3-front, p3-back, p4-front, p4-back

• xep-afp-copy-group - Defines a copy group as well as its attributes and keywords.

Format:

<?xep-afp-copy-group id="id-number" copy-count="number"
mode="mode-val" [key="value"]* ?>

Attributes:

• id - Instruction identifier. The value must be a decimal number.

• copy-count - The number of copies in the copy group. The value must be a decimal number.

• mode - Printing mode. Possible values are simplex, duplex, and tumble-duplex.

id, copy-count and bold are mandatory attributes.

xep-afp-copy-group may contain several optional pairs of keywords and values. Each keyword-value pair must conform to the following rules:

Format of key-value pair:

key-value-pair = key, '=', '"', value, '"';
key = ( 'x' | 'X' ) ,
('0' | '1' | '2' | '3' | '4' | '5' | '6' | '7'
| '8' | '9' | 'A' | 'B' | 'C' | 'D' | 'E' | 'F'),
('0' | '1' | '2' | '3' | '4' | '5' | '6' | '7'
| '8' | '9' | 'A' | 'B' | 'C' | 'D' | 'E' | 'F');
value = ('0' | '1' | '2' | '3' | '4' | '5' | '6' | '7'
| '8' | '9' | 'A' | 'B' | 'C' | 'D' | 'E' | 'F'),
('0' | '1' | '2' | '3' | '4' | '5' | '6' | '7'
| '8' | '9' | 'A' | 'B' | 'C' | 'D' | 'E' | 'F');

Examples of valid keys: "x12", "XFF", "xA1".

Examples of valid values: "AF", "15", "FD".

Each key-value pair adds a keyword with value to MO:DCA MMC structured field content.

### Note:

Printing mode such as simplex, duplex or tumble duplex is controlled separately by the mode attribute which effectively generates XF4 MMC keyword. If the mode of printing is duplex, the copy group is generated twice in MCC automatically, and you do not need to repeat the group twice. You need not use XF4 MMC keyword explicitly.

#### Other FORMDEF Instructions

Other FORMDEF instructions include:

• xep-afp-invoke-medium-map - puts IMM (Invoke Medium Map) instruction before page's BPG.

This instruction is used in order to invoke Medium Maps that are already uploaded into target printer environment. If two sequential pages invoke the same Medium Map, only the first page's BPG will be preceded with corresponding IMM. To override this behaviour and make XEP put IMM before each BPG, regardless of this check, use force attribute.

If name exceeds 8 characters, AFP backend trims it to this length and automatically adds 0x02 (Fully Qualified Name) triplet.

### Note:

XEP is unable to ensure validity of Medium Maps uploaded into the printer so it does not check if map-name is valid.

Format:

<?xep-afp-invoke-medium-map name="map-name" [force="true"]?>

Attributes:

• name - name of the map to be invoked.

• force - whether to force IMM instruction on each page applied.

### Note:

xep-afp-invoke-medium-map is put into the main output stream only and thus it does not require resource file specified.

## Configuring the XEP AFP Generator

Configuration of the AFP generator is performed in a usual way all XEP generators are configured.

### Note:

AFP files require that some rendering features are disabled in the core of XEP. Starting from verion 4.19, AFP generator users are encouraged to set an XEP core option to false: <option name="MERGE_WHITE_SPACE" value="false"/>.

All other configuration options for AFP generator are child elements of XEP configuration file element <generator-options format="AFP">. Each AFP generator configuration option is an element option and looks like

<option name="OPTION_NAME" value="OPTION_VALUE"/>.

### Note:

AFP parameters can be set in three different ways, depending on your specific needs:

• Configuration file - in this case, the parameter value applies to all documents processed with this configuration file.

• Environment variable (Generator option) - passed within command line and applies for current run of XEP. Generator option value overrides Configuration file values.

• Processing Instruction - passed within Processing Instruction (PI) inside XSL:FO document. Please refer Output Format Settings section for more details on processing instructions. Processing Instruction value overrides Generator option and Configuration file values.

In this section, all parameters will be described in Configuration file format.

AFP generator's prefix for Generator options is H4AFP. So, RESOLUTION parameter will look like this:

-DH4AFP.RESOLUTION=1440

AFP generator's prefix for Processing instructions is xep-afp-. So, RESOLUTION parameter will look like this:

<?xep-afp-resolution 1440?>

Processing Instruction may appear at document level or page level. Every time the page level parameter is set, it applies until the same parameter is set to another value. For example, if RESOLUTION option is set to: 1440 in config file; to 720 for page #5; and to 1440 for page #10 - the value of 720 will apply for ALL pages ##5 till 9.

### Configuring Character Sets

AFP generator for XEP has extended support for international Character sets. The following chapter describes how to configure the necessary character sets and corresponding Codepages.

One should configure only those Character sets and Codepages supported by the fonts residing in target AFP device.

### Note:

Even if the printer is configured to support various Codepages, it is still reasonable to remove from XEP configuration file these Character sets not used in the documents to improve performance.

The element <charsets> is a container for Character sets configuration.

Each Character set is configured within <charset> element. It has the attribute name describing the name of Character set. The attribute name must be unique.

Character set definition contains the following child elements:

• List of Unicode character ranges applying the Character set, represented <code-ranges> element;

• List of specially mapped characters, represented by <character-mapping> element;

• Single <codepage> element defining the Unicode to Codepage mapping;

Unicode character range is defined by <code-range> element. It has the following attributes:

• from and to defining beginning and ending values of Unicode characters belonging to the character range; Must be hexadecimal value; Required;

Codepages are defined by <codepage> element. It has the following attributes:

• name string value defining Java standard name of Codepage; In Java environment, there must be a registered charset provider with the given name; Required;

• ibm-name string value defining AFP codepage specification ("Txxxxxxx"); Required;

• forcelatin a boolean (true or false) value defining whether the codepage contain Base Latin characters in lower half of code bytes (0x00..0x7F); Optional; Default=true;

• desc providing text description of the code page; Optional;

Specially mapped characters are defined by <character> element. It has the following attributes:

• unicode defining two-byte hexadecimal value of specially mapped character; Required;

• afp defining one-byte hexadecimal value of mapped character within target Codepage; Required;

• desc providing text description of the character; Optional;

### Note:

All the remaining characters belonging to Unicode character ranges and not listed with <character> elements, are translated to target Codepage using Java standard mechanisms of string translations;

Please refer the section called “International Character Set Support” section to find more details on how the AFP generator works with Unicode ranges and Codepages.

The following example demonstrates how to configure necessary Character sets for AFP generator:

<generator-options format="AFP">
<charsets>
<!--languages-->
<charset name="Latin">
<code-range from="0x0000" to="0x007F"/>
<codepage name="Cp500" ibm-name="T1V10500" forcelatin="true" desc="Base Latin"/>
</charset>
<charset name="Latin_1">
<code-range from="0x0080" to="0x00FF"/>
<codepage name="Cp819" ibm-name="T1000819" forcelatin="true" desc="Latin_1"/>
</charset>
<charset name="Cyrillic">
<code-range from="0x0400" to="0x04FF"/>
<codepage name="Cp866" ibm-name="T1000866" forcelatin="true" desc="ANSI Cyrillic"/>
</charset>
<charset name="Chinese">
<code-range from="0x4E00" to="0x9FFF"/>
<codepage name="Cp950" ibm-name="T1094700" forcelatin="false" desc="Chinese"/>
</charset>
<charset name="Hebrew">
<code-ranges>
<code-range from="0x0590" to="0x05FF"/>
</code-ranges>
<codepage name="Cp424" ibm-name="T1000424" forcelatin="true" desc="Hebrew"/>
</charset>
<charset name="Greek">
<code-ranges>
<code-range from="0x0370" to="0x03ff"/>
</code-ranges>
<codepage name="Cp875" ibm-name="T1000875" forcelatin="false"/>
</charset>
<!--symbol-->
<charset name="Symbols00259">
<code-ranges>
<code-range from="0x03C0" to="0x03C0"/>
<code-range from="0x2020" to="0x2020"/>
<code-range from="0x003C" to="0x003C"/>
<code-range from="0x02C6" to="0x02C6"/>
<code-range from="0x00B0" to="0x00B0"/>
<code-range from="0x25CF" to="0x25CF"/>
<code-range from="0x25C6" to="0x25C6"/>
<code-range from="0x25A1" to="0x25A1"/>
<code-range from="0x2341" to="0x2341"/>
<code-range from="0x25BA" to="0x25BA"/>
</code-ranges>
<character-mapping>
<character unicode="0x03C0" afp="0x46" desc="pi small"/>
<character unicode="0x2020" afp="0x4b" desc="dagger"/>
<character unicode="0x003C" afp="0x4c" desc="less"/>
<character unicode="0x02C6" afp="0x5f" desc="circumflex accent"/>
<character unicode="0x00B0" afp="0x7c" desc="degree symbol"/>
<character unicode="0x25CF" afp="0xbc" desc="large bullet"/>
<character unicode="0x25A1" afp="0xda" desc="open square"/>
</character-mapping>
<codepage name="Cp259" ibm-name="T1000259" forcelatin="false"/>
</charset>
<charset name="Cp437">
<code-ranges>
<code-range from="0x2022" to="0x2022"/>
<code-range from="0x266A" to="0x266A"/>
</code-ranges>
<character-mapping>
<character unicode="0x266a" afp="0x0d" desc="musical note"/>
<character unicode="0x2022" afp="0x07" desc="bullet"/>
</character-mapping>
<codepage name="Cp437" ibm-name="T1000437" forcelatin="false"/>
</charset>
<charset name="Cp423">
<code-ranges>
<code-range from="0x03CA" to="0x03CA"/>
</code-ranges>
<character-mapping>
<character unicode="0x03CA" afp="0xb4" desc="acute accent"/>
</character-mapping>
<codepage name="Cp423" ibm-name="T1000423" forcelatin="false"/>
</charset>
<charset name="APL Graphic Escape">
<code-ranges>
<code-range from="0x25CA" to="0x25CA"/>
<code-range from="0x25A0" to="0x25A0"/>
<code-range from="0x203E" to="0x203E"/>
</code-ranges>
<character-mapping>
<character unicode="0x25CA" afp="0x70" desc="acute accent"/>
<character unicode="0x25A0" afp="0xC3" desc="down caret"/>
<character unicode="0x203E" afp="0xA0" desc="overbar"/>
</character-mapping>
<codepage name="Cp310" ibm-name="T1000310" forcelatin="true"/>
</charset>
</charsets>
</generator-options>

### Note:

Due to the nature of Character set configuration, it must be specified in xep.xml configuration file only and cannot be specified or overridden neither in command line parameters nor processing instructions within the XSL-FO document.

### Configuring Fonts

• AFPFont options are used for mapping XSL FO fonts to AFP fonts.

Each AFPFont option name starts with "AFPFont" and after a comma contains face name of a XSL FO font. Each AFPFont option value contains a list of nine subvalues separated with commas.

Example:

<option name="AFPFont,Helvetica"
value="C0H200.0, C0H300.0, C0H400.0, C0H500.0,
C0H201.0, C0H301.0, C0H401.0, C0H501.0, 278"/>

Subvalues in the list have following meaning:

1. AFP substitution font for font-weight="normal" font-style="normal"

2. AFP substitution font for font-weight="normal" font-style="italic"

3. AFP substitution font for font-weight="bold" font-style="normal"

4. AFP substitution font for font-weight="bold" font-style="italic"

5. AFP substitution font for symbolic subset and font-weight="normal" font-style="normal"

6. AFP substitution font for symbolic subset and font-weight="normal" font-style="italic"

7. AFP substitution font for symbolic subset and font-weight="bold" font-style="normal"

8. AFP substitution font for symbolic subset and font-weight="bold" font-style="italic"

9. Word spacing value in font relative units (please reference AFP FOCA reference for details)

### Note:

If the font is not found within the table above, AFP Generator uses Helvetica to substitute.

### Configuring Highlight Color Table

HighlightColor option is used for configuring mapping of colorant to Highlight Color ID within the target AFP device.

Each HighlightColor option starts with "HighlightColor" prefix and after comma should contain Color ID (hex or decimal). Value contains symbolic name of colorant.

Example:

<option name="highlightcolor,0x301" value="PANTONE Orange 021 M" />

or (the same)

<option name="highlightcolor,769" value="PANTONE Orange 021 M" />

• USE_SHADING_PATTERNS specifies whether grayscale-filled areas should be filled with bi-level pattern. Percentage rate of containing black points will be close to required grayscale value.

1 or true or yes - Shading patterns will be used

0 or false or no - Shading patterns will not be used (default)

Example:

<option name="USE_SHADING_PATTERNS" value="yes"/>

Shading patterns work for rectangular areas only.

Shading patterns are limited for only those areas filled with grayscale color.

There are several patterns hard-coded into AFP backend: 0%, 3.125%, 6.25%, 10%, 12.5%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 37.5%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 62.5%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 87.5%, 90%, 95%, and 100%. If greyscale value does not exactly match any of listed values, the closest match will be used.

Shading patterns, as all bilevel images, are mixed with their background. Their white points appear transparent.

• USE_REPLICATE_AND_TRIM specifies if "replicate-and-trim" feature will be used for shading patterns.

1 or true or yes - "replicate-and-trim" is used

0 or false or no - "replicate-and-trim" is not used (default)

If set to "no", shading pattern raster image will be created for entire dimensions of rectangle. If set to "yes", only 8x8 pixels image will be created. Thus, this feature significantly reduces size of documents with shading patterns enabled, and produces best quality.

Example:

<option name="USE_REPLICATE_AND_TRIM" value="yes"/>

This option applies only if USE_SHADING_PATTERNS equals to true.

"Replicate-and-trim" feature is not supported by every AFP device, so it should be turned off for older printers without support of this feature.

(Default: 1.0)

Can contain any positive decimal value greater than 0 and no greater than 1

Example:

<option name="SHADING_PATTERN_RESOLUTION" value="0.25"/>

Shading pattern raster image size is limited to 32kbytes. Thus, if the resolution is set high, it may exceed this limit. To avoid this, SHADING_PATTERN_RESOLUTION defines divider for actual raster size. For example, if rectangle area size is 1000x1000 px and SHADING_PATTERN_RESOLUTION is set to 0.25 (25%), AFP Backend will produce raster image of size 250*250, and command AFP to stretch it to required dimensions. Note that quality of 0.25 (1/4) will produce raster image 16 times smaller.

This option applies only if USE_SHADING_PATTERNS equals to true and USE_REPLICATE_AND_TRIM equals to false.

• TRY_USING_TIFF_COMPRESSION option allows the user to specify whether AFP backend attempts to compress shading patterns raster images with TIFF encoding.

1 or true or yes - AFP Backend attempts to compress shading pattern rasters (default)

0 or false or no - AFP Backend does not attempt to compress shading pattern rasters

Example:

<option name="TRY_USING_TIFF_COMPRESSION" value="yes"/>

Some rasters cannot be compressed with TIFF. In this case, uncompressed raster image is sent to output. Hard-coded rasters are known to be compressible or not, so AFP Backend does not try to compress uncompressible ones.

The only reason to set this value to "no" is when your AFP device does not support TIFF compression.

This option applies only if USE_SHADING_PATTERNS equals to true and USE_REPLICATE_AND_TRIM equals to false.

### Configuring Data Types

XEP allows configuring which Native data types will be put to AFP data stream without recompressing the raster.

The element <data-types> is a container for Native data types configuration. Its attribute default-name defines which algorithm will be used for thos formats that are not configured as native.

Each Data type is configured within <data-type> element. It has the following attributes:

• name - verbose name of data type. The attribute name contains any string value and must be unique.

• allow-instream - whether the data type is allowed in AFP data stream.

1 or true or yes - Data type is allowed (default)

0 or false or no - Data type is not allowed

• compression-code defining one-byte numeric value of AFP compression code; may be decimal or hexadecimal; Required;

• recording-code defining one-byte numeric value of AFP recording code; may be decimal or hexadecimal; Required;

Data type definition contains the following child elements:

• List of MIME-types associated with the Data type, represented <mime-type> element;

Each MIME-type is configured within <mime-type> element. It has the following attributes:

• code - verbose code of MIME-type. The attribute code contains any string value and must be unique across all <data-type> elements.

The following example demonstrates how to configure necessary Data types for AFP generator:

<data-types default-name="G4 MMR">
<data-type name="Uncompressed" allow-instream="true"
compression-code="0x03" recording-code="0x01">
</data-type>
<data-type name="G4 MMR" allow-instream="true"
compression-code="0x82" recording-code="0x01">
</data-type>
<data-type name="JPEG" allow-instream="true"
compression-code="0x83" recording-code="0x01">
<mime-type code="image/jpeg" />
<mime-type code="jpeg" />
</data-type>
</data-types>


See Image Encoding section of I:OCA Reference (Chapter 5, page 35) for list of compatible AFP image formats.

### Other Configuration Options

• AFPLogLevel option lets users turn on output of additional information related to internal details of processing document elements in AFP generator. This information has various levels of detail, from 0 to 2.

0 - AFP logging is turned off (default)

1 - AFP generator prints only warnings

2 - AFP generator prints warnings and information messages

Example:

<option name="AFPLogLevel" value="0"/>
• RESOURCE option lets users turn on generating AFP resources (images, graphics, etc.) into separate resource file. If specified, this option should target to particular file name. If omitted, all resources are put within the main AFP output document

Default: (empty string)

Example:

<option name="RESOURCE" value="myresourcefile.afp.res"/>

Resource file is always rewritten.

• RESOLUTION defines which document resolution will be output within the document. It must be positive integer value supported by target AFP device.

Default: 1440

Example:

<option name="RESOLUTION" value="1440"/>
• AFPGrayImage option is obsolete. Use default-name attribute of <data-types> element to define default compression algorithm.

• USE_PTOCA_LEVEL defines maximal level of PT:OCA commands subset.

1 - Use PT1 only (default)

2 - Use PT1 and PT2 only

3 - Use PT1, PT2, and PT3 subsets

Example:

<option name="USE_PTOCA_LEVEL" value="3"/>

Different AFP-capable devices support different command subsets. In order to comply with this difference and provide maximum compatibility while keeping highest quality and performance, this option must be set according current printer capabilities.

Please refer Presentation Text Object Content Architecture Reference for more details on specific commands belonging to various PT:OCA subsets.

• USE_GOCA_LEVEL defines maximal level of G:OCA commands subset.

0 - Do not use G:OCA commands (default)

1 - Use Level 1 only

3 - Use Levels 1 and 3

Example:

<option name="USE_GOCA_LEVEL" value="1"/>

Different AFP-capable devices may or may not support G:OCA command subsets. In order to provide maximum compatibility, this option must be set according current printer capabilities.

Please refer the section called “Graphics Support” for more details on G:OCA implementation in XEP AFP Generator.

• USE_BCOCA_LEVEL defines maximal level of BC:OCA commands subset.

0 - Do not use BC:OCA commands (default)

1 - Use Level 1 only

Example:

<option name="USE_BCOCA_LEVEL" value="1"/>

Set this parameter to 1 in order to enable generating BC:OCA data within output stream.

Please refer the section called “Barcodes Support” for more details on supported barcode types and barcodes implementation notes in XEP AFP Generator.

## Bullets support

AFP Backend supports several ways to produce bulleted text.

• Using external image

In order to use image approach, you should define <fo:list-item-label> section as in sample below (assuming you have bullet.png file in the same folder with FO file):

<fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
<fo:block>
<fo:external-graphic src="url(bullet.png)"
content-height="100%" content-width="100%"/>
</fo:block>
</fo:list-item-label>
• Using special Unicode symbol.

A special symbol can be used, like in sample below:

<fo:list-item-label end-indent="label-end()">
<fo:block>&#x00b0;</fo:block>
</fo:list-item-label>

### Note:

Unicode character used for text bullets must belong to any of Character Sets configured. The most common Unicode characters 0x2022 and 0x2023 used for circle and triangle bullets belong to General Punctuation Unicode Character Set.

• Using SVG primitive

SVG opens bigger variety of possible bullets. This may include circles, diamonds, stars, and other shapes (filled and not filled ones). They also can be enchanced with effects like shadows, outline, and more.

Here is an example of plain filled square bullet using SVG:

<fo:list-item-label start-indent="18pt" text-indent="0pt">
<fo:block>
<fo:instream-foreign-object display-align="center">
<svg:svg width="6pt" height="6pt">
<svg:rect x="1" y="1" width="5pt" height="5pt" fill="black"/>
</svg:svg>
</fo:instream-foreign-object>
</fo:block>
</fo:list-item-label>

Other approaches have not been tested and are not supported. Please refer the section called “Limitations of the XEP AFP Generator” for more details.

## International Character Set Support

AFP Generator for XEP has multilanguage support. For each character in text blocks, it detects Character Set the character belongs to (out of character sets listed in configuration file). After that, it uses conversion table to convert the character to the CodePage that AFP device is capable to process.

Here is the description how AFP generator for XEP finds out which Codepage to use.

The source Unicode string is analyzed by characters. For each of them, AFP generator determines Character Set (<character> element in config file) the character belongs to (using the Code Ranges listed in configuration file specified in <code-range> elements). If the range not found, the first configured range is assumed (normally, Base Latin). After the range is found, AFP generator checks whether the character is specified within the list of specially translated characters (<character-mapping> element). If so, the character is translated according to the mapping table (afp attribute). If not, AFP generator uses Java libraries to map the character to the corresponding code page (<codepage> element, (name attribute). After that, it determines if the character belongs the same code page as the previous one in the same text block. For instance, Chinese and Cyrillic characters cannot reside in the same AFP tect block due to different encodings. However, Base Latin may follow the Cyrillic character since Cyrillic code pages usually contain Latin characters in lower half of codes (0x00-0x7F). This approach is determined by forcelatin attribute. Finally, after the string of the same code page is composed, it becomes assigned with IBM encoded name (ibm-name attribute) and placed to AFPDS stream.

### Note:

The number of Character ranges makes significant impact on the above logic performance.

Moreover, even if some characters of the documents will fall into wrong Character Set, they may not be printed in case if the AFP device does not support corresponding code pages.

So, it is strongly recommended to remove unused Character Sets from configuration file in order to obtain best results and productivity.

### Note:

PT:OCA bullets seem to be very fast and effective solution, however it strongly depends on the fonts uploaded to the AFP device. So it requires careful attention configuring PT:OCA bullets against the particular target device.

The complete list of Unicode character sets can be found at W3C Web site. Here is the list of most common Unicode Character sets:

Name AFP CodePage Text CodePage Unicode Characters Range Comment
Basic Latin T1V10500 Cp500 0x0000-0x007F Basic Latin is automatically included into all character sets
Latin-1 T1000819 Cp819 0x0080-0x00FF Contains umlaut characters for Western-European languages
Hebrew T1000424 Cp424 0x0590-0x05FF Contains characters for Hebrew
Greek/Coptic T1000875 Cp875 0x0370-0x03FF Contains characters for Greek language
Cyrillic T1000866 Cp866 0x0400-0x04FF Contains characters for Cyrillic languages
Chinese T1094700 Cp950 0x4E00-0x9FFF Contains characters for Chinese language (simplified)

Please refer the section called “Configuring Character Sets” for more details.

## Limitations of the XEP AFP Generator

• AFP generator uses precision of 1/20 of point so its precision is 50 times worse than in other XEP backends.

• AFP generator does not support lines with styles other than solid, dashed, and dotted; all other lines look solid in generated AFP documents.

• AFP generator does not support SVG/G:OCA lines with style other than solid; all lines look solid in generated AFP documents.

• AFP generator does not support all styles of XSL FO borders (see above limitation on lines). All other borders are drawn as solid lines.

• AFP generator does not support some of XEPOUT elments.

• AFP generator does not support colors other than RGB, Greyscale, CMYK, and Spot (Highlight).

• Shading option is not supported for Highight color. More details in Highlight Color Support.

• Image clipping works only for images having the same (or higher) resolution as AFP document.

• Shading patterns work for rectangular areas only.

• Shading patterns are limited for only those areas filled with grayscale color.

• Bilevel images (including shading patterns) are mixed with their background. Their white points appear transparent.

• AFP backend cannot process strip TIFF images with absent 'RowsPerStrip' tag. 'RowsPerStrip' tag may be absent in TIFF image, although this is not recommended by TIFF Specification (Revision 6.0). This is a limitation of used library, AWT.

• Custom stylesheets implementing Barcodes MUST produce Barcode alone item within SVG block if barcodes are generated with BC:OCA. For example:

<svg>
<!-- nothing before desc ->
<desc />
<svg:line />      <!-- only lines displaying barcodes -->
…
<svg:line />
<!-- nothing after barcodes’ lines -->
</svg>
• Ligatures are not supported yet; they are displayed as question marks ("?"). In order to avoid this, ligatures must be disabled for each font used.

• Code3of9 barcode does not correctly produce characters: dollar sign (), slash (/), plus (+), and percent (%). • Code128 and 4state-AU barcodes may display wrongly in some cases. • SVG text support only the following rotation values (in degrees): 0, 90, 180, 270. • SVG text enclosed into viewbox may be distorted if zoom factors by X and Y axis are different; In this case, root-mean-square value is used. • International Character Set support: Currently, each Character Set has single CodePage and AFP CodePage assigned, and this cannot be configured. More details in International Character Set Support section. • Unicode character used for text bullets must belong to any of supported Character Sets. The most common Unicode characters 0x2022 and 0x2023 belonging to General Punctuation Character Set are not supported. • Currently, XEP does not support outline AFP fonts. • Embedding, subsetting and algorithmic slanting of native AFP fonts are not supported. ## Frequently Asked Questions • Q: Upon every file I'm trying to process with XEP, the following error is displayed: "UnsupportedEncodingException: Cp037" A: By default, JRE is installed without charsets.jar file. This file is required for XEP. Please run JRE installer and check "additional languages support" checkbox. ### Note: Actual checkbox name may vary for different versions of JRE. • Q: After upgrading to XEP 4.19, text in AFP seems garbled; white spaces appear in the middle of words. What's wrong? A: Briefly, you have to set MERGE_WHITE_SPACE option to the value of false. See the section called “Configuring the XEP AFP Generator” XEP Formatter employs "White Space Tracking" feature in order to produce better printing results. Effectively, the Formatter splits text into chunks (inside or between the words which stands for Character, Word, and Sentence tracking) and set arbitrary alignment for each chunk individually. This is quite effective for those formats that are displayed on screen or printed, using exactly the same fonts as those been used for formatting. It does not work with AFP fonts, however. The fonts used for formatting are TrueType or OpenType, while those residing in AFP printer memory have slightly different metrics. In case of AFP Viewers, such a problem is also a case due to rounding errors. XEP 4.18 and earlier purposefully disabled White Space Tracking if they noticed AFP key in the license. This helped AFP printing, but did not work for the customers who print both to AFP and other formats. Since version 4.19, White Space Tracking option is independent on the licenses used. ## XEP SVG Generator ## Generating SVG Documents SVG documents can be generated through the following: • XEP Assistant - When formatting the XML file using the XEP Assistant, select SVG as the format, as described in XEP Assistant. • Command Line - Using the command line, SVG documents can be generated. • To generate an SVG document, use the parameter -svg: -svg <svg document file name> For more information, please refer to Using the Command Line. ## Image Support SVG generator supports PNG, JPEG, GIF, SVG/SVGZ and XEPOUT images. Notes on SVG support in SVG generator: 1. For an SVG image to be processed, it must have an intrinsic size. If height or width are expressed in unsupported units or missing, a viewBox attribute must be present: the intrinsic size is determined by the viewBox, assuming 1 user space unit = 1 pixel. If SVG image has no phisical size specified the result is undefined. 2. SVG image height and width can be expressed in the following units: px, pc, pt, cm, mm, in. Other unit identifiers are not supported. ## Color Support CMYK, grayscale, spot and registration colors will be rendered into RGB equivalent ## Configuring the XEP SVG Generator Configuration of the SVG generator is performed in a usual way all XEP generators are configured. All configuration options for SVG generator are child elements of XEP configuration file element <generator-options format="SVG">. Each SVG generator configuration option is an element option and looks like <option name="OPTION_NAME" value="OPTION_VALUE"/>. EMBED_IMAGES, BREAK_PAGES and GENERATE_FIRST_N_PAGES options can be passed to SVG generator. ### Note: SVG parameters can be set in three different ways, depending on your specific needs: • Configuration file - in this case, the parameter value applies to all documents processed with this configuration file. • Environment variable (Generator option) - passed within command line and applies for current run of XEP. Generator option value overrides Configuration file values. • Processing Instruction - passed within Processing Instruction (PI) inside XSL:FO document. Please refer Output Format Settings section for more details on processing instructions. Processing Instruction value overrides Generator option and Configuration file values. SVG generator's prefix for Generator options is H4SVG. So, EMBED_IMAGES parameter will look like this: -DH4SVG.EMBED_IMAGES=true SVG generator's prefix for Processing instructions is xep-svg-. So, EMBED_IMAGES parameter will look like this: <?xep-svg-embed-images true?> Processing Instruction may appear at document level or page level. ## Limitations of the XEP SVG Generator • SVG generator does not support lines with styles other than solid, dashed, and dotted; all other lines look solid in generated SVG documents. • SVG generator does not support all styles of XSL FO borders (see above limitation on lines). All other borders are drawn as solid lines. • SVG generator does not support internal and external bookmarks. • SVG generator does not support font embedding and subsetting, so if the specified font is not present in the system, the text may look different. ## XEP XPS Generator ## Generating XPS Documents XPS documents can be generated through the following: • XEP Assistant - When formatting the XML file using the XEP Assistant, select XPS as the format, as described in XEP Assistant. • Command Line - XPS documents can be generated using the command line. • To generate an XPS document, use the parameter -xps: -xps <xps document file name> For more information, please refer to Using the Command Line. ## Image Support XPS generator supports PNG, TIFF, JPEG and SVG image formats. ## Color Support CMYK, grayscale, spot and registration colors will be rendered into RGB equivalents ## Configuring the XEP XPS Generator XPS generator does not support any options. ## Limitations of the XEP XPS Generator • XPS generator does not support GIF images • XPS generator does not support Type1 fonts embedding. • If a CID OpenType font is embedded into an XPS document, the Microsoft standalone XPS viewer reports an error, and refuses to show it. But Internet Explorer XPS viewer plugin shows the document correctly. • XPS generator does not support letter spacing and word spacing. • XPS generator does not support show-destination attribute for links. • XPS specification requires that all fonts used in document must be embedded, thus the files containing font outlines must be specified in XEP configuration file. ## XEP XHTML Generator ## Generating XHTML Documents XHTML documents can be generated through the following: • XEP Assistant - When formatting the XML file using the XEP Assistant, select HTML as the format, as described in XEP Assistant. • Command Line - Using the command line, XHTML documents can be generated. • To generate an XHTML document, use the parameter -html: -html <xhtml document file name> For more information, please refer to Using the Command Line. ## Image Support XHTML generator supports PNG, JPEG, GIF, SVG/SVGZ, XEPOUT images. Notes on SVG/SVGZ support in XHTML generator: 1. For an SVG image to be processed, it must have an intrinsic size. 2. SVG image height and width can be expressed in the following units: px, pc, pt, cm, mm, in. Other unit identifiers are not supported. Unspecified units also are not supported. ## Color Support CMYK, grayscale, spot and registration colors will be rendered into RGB equivalent. ## XForms Starting with version 4.19, XEP is able to produce XHTML with XForms 1.1. This feature is controlled by a special license key file. The <pdf-form-field> extension element with it's descendants describes a single field in the XForm. See the the section called “PDF Forms” part for more information. In case of XForms value of js-* attributes is required to match the value of its related properties in XForm specification (i.e. XPath expression). Input attributes js-format and js-keystroke correspond to the property type in the field's binding element of the output XForm model. The attribute js-validate corresponds to the property constraint, and the attribute js-calculate - to the property calculate in the field's binding element of the output XForm model. Since all form fields are collected in fields root element at output XForm model, addressing to the form's field should be /fields/user_field_name or ../user_field_name in XPath expressions. ### Note: For XForms to work properly, file extension should be .xhtml ## Configuring the XEP XHTML Generator Configuration of the XHTML generator is performed in a usual way all XEP generators are configured. All configuration options for XHTML generator are child elements of XEP configuration file element <generator-options format="HTML">. Each XHTML generator configuration option is an element option and looks like <option name="OPTION_NAME" value="OPTION_VALUE"/>. EMBED_IMAGES, BREAK_PAGES, GENERATE_FIRST_N_PAGES and XFORMS options can be passed to XHTML generator. ### Note: XHTML parameters can be set in three different ways, depending on your specific needs: • Configuration file - in this case, the parameter value applies to all documents processed with this configuration file. • Environment variable (Generator option) - passed within command line and applies for current run of XEP. Generator option value overrides Configuration file values. • Processing Instruction - passed within Processing Instruction (PI) inside XSL:FO document. Please refer Output Format Settings section for more details on processing instructions. Processing Instruction value overrides Generator option and Configuration file values. XHTML generator's prefix for Generator options is H4HTML. So, EMBED_IMAGES parameter will look like this: -DH4HTML.EMBED_IMAGES=true XHTML generator's prefix for Processing instructions is xep-html-. So, EMBED_IMAGES parameter will look like this: <?xep-html-embed-images true?> Processing Instruction may appear at document level or page level. ## Limitations of the XEP XHTML Generator • XHTML generator supports only vertical and horizontal lines. • XHTML generator does not support rotate, polygon, internal-bookmark and external-bookmark XEPOUT elments. Therefore the following XSL FO features are unavailable: borders, reference orientation and bookmarks. • XHTML generator does not support font embedding and subsetting, so if the specified font is not present in the system, the text may look different. • If BREAK_PAGES option value is true, XForms output is not produced. • XForms producer does not support <pdf-javascript> extension element. • XForms producer does not support noexport extension attribute. • XForms producer supports only js-format, js-keystroke, js-validate and js-calculate JavaScript attributes. ## XEP PPML Generator XEP PPML Generator produces compressed (zipped) stream, which contains the PPML file itself (ppml.ppml), single-page documents of selected target format, and resources (images). A typical structure of the output looks likes the following: Archive: examples/hammer/hammer.ppml.zip Length Date Time Name --------- ---------- ----- ---- 13859 2010-03-20 19:58 p-1.ps 10559 2010-03-20 19:58 p-2.ps 13178 2010-03-20 19:58 resources/3C930583962468B4D703279B9434B040 11324 2010-03-20 19:58 resources/EF7F83D0E38E530AA594BE2F0481A979 30007 2010-03-20 19:58 p-3.ps 3440 2010-03-20 19:58 resources/72B960DC67902BA55E8AE7CEFD38EE55 4050 2010-03-20 19:58 resources/2B1239042024CB27DD37A5072BE22AC5 5086 2010-03-20 19:58 resources/147B5BE21F3BED972AFD492D9FC104DC 5352 2010-03-20 19:58 resources/6ABEBDF9A745C573723CF368BC4C782D 6872 2010-03-20 19:58 resources/5EECE4084815E05A11D8055F672846EC 37873 2010-03-20 19:58 p-4.ps 21729 2010-03-20 19:58 p-5.ps 4912 2010-03-20 19:58 ppml.ppml --------- ------- 168241 13 files Note that the default file naming scheme in command-line xep script is that the output file name extension matches the output format. In case of PPML generator, the command line invocation  ./xep -fo examples/basic/color.fo -ppml

will create a file "examples/basic/color.ppml", which in fact is a zip file of the structure similar to the one shown above. For clarity users are encouraged to specify the ouput file name explicitly:

./xep -fo examples/basic/color.fo -ppml examples/basic/color.ppml.zip The file "ppml.ppml" complies with the PPML 2.2 specification ( http://ppml.podi.org/component/option,com_docman/Itemid,81/task,doc_download/gid,4/) and the DTD ( http://www.podi.org/ppml/ppml220.dtd). ## Generating PPML Documents PPML documents can be generated through the following: • XEP Assistant - When formatting the XML file using the XEP Assistant, select PPML as the format, as described in XEP Assistant. • Command Line - Using the command line, PPML documents can be generated. • To generate an PPML document, use the parameter -ppml: -ppml <ppml document file name> For more information, please refer to Using the Command Line. • To set PPML document internal pages format use the parameter -DH4PPML.TARGET_FORMAT: -DH4PPML.TARGET_FORMAT=<PS or PDF> • To generate PPML document, compatible with the Graphic Arts Conformance Specification (Level 1 or 2), use the parameter -DH4PPML.GA_LEVEL: -DH4PPML.GA_LEVEL=<1 or 2> ### Note: You can set -1 as the value of -DH4PPML.GA_LEVEL to avoid processing images as resources entirely: all images will be passed to the target format generators and appear in pages rather than resources. Alternatively, you can use the configuration file entries. For more details, refer to the section called “Configuring the XEP PPML Generator”. ## Image Support PPML generator supports all image formats, which are supported by the chosen target format generator. Notes on Graphic Arts Level: 1. An image may be included in PPML zip stream as a resource only once, and referenced from the ppml.ppml file multiple times. This allows for reduced output size and improved performance. This feature is very useful for repeating images, like corporate logos, headers, footers, etc. ### Note: In PDF or PS backend you can generate a text/image mixed context (for example, text written on top of image). PPML, however, does not support such behaviour Use GA_LEVEL=-1 as noted above if you need complex overlayed design, but you will lose the benefits of reusable resources. 2. If GA_LEVEL not set or set to zero, then all images are included in PPML document as zip-entrees in internal resources folder. 3. If GA_LEVEL is set to 1 or 2, then only JPEG and TIFF images are included in PPML zip stream as resources. All other images are processed by selected target format generator. ## Configuring the XEP PPML Generator Configuration of the PPML generator is performed in a usual way all XEP generators are configured. All configuration options for PPML generator are child elements of XEP configuration file element <generator-options format="PPML">. Each PPML generator configuration option is an element option and looks like <option name="OPTION_NAME" value="OPTION_VALUE"/>. TARGET_FORMAT and GA_LEVEL options can be passed to PPML generator. ### Note: PPML parameters can be set in three different ways, depending on your specific needs: • Configuration file - in this case, the parameter value applies to all documents processed with this configuration file. • System property - passed within command line and applies for current run of XEP. System property value overrides Configuration file values. • Processing Instruction - passed within Processing Instruction (PI) inside XSL-FO document. Please refer Output Format Settings section for more details on processing instructions. Processing Instruction value overrides System properties and Configuration file values. PPML generator's prefix for System properties is H4PPML. So, TARGET_FORMAT parameter will look like this: -DH4PPML.TARGET_FORMAT="PDF" PPML generator's prefix for processing instructions is xep-ppml-. So, TARGET_FORMAT processing instruction will look like this: <?xep-ppml-target-format PDF?> Processing Instruction may appear only at document level, before <fo:root>. ## Appendix A. XSL-FO Conformance ## XSL-FO Support This appendix describes the implementation of XSL Formatting Objects in XEP — an XSL Engine for PDF developed by RenderX, Inc, version 4.26.503. It lists all supported formatting objects and their properties, provides information about fallbacks for unsupported objects and discusses details of interpretation of XSL specifications adopted in the engine. ### Note: XEP implements Extensible Stylesheet Language version 1.0 as specified in the XSL 1.0 Recommendation of October 15, 2001. ### Formatting Objects Supported by XEP § Object Name Supported 6.4.2 <fo:root> Yes 6.4.3 <fo:declarations> No 6.4.4 <fo:color-profile> No 6.4.5 <fo:page-sequence> Yes 6.4.6 <fo:layout-master-set> Yes 6.4.7 <fo:page-sequence-master> Yes 6.4.8 <fo:single-page-master-reference> Yes 6.4.9 <fo:repeatable-page-master-reference> Yes 6.4.10 <fo:repeatable-page-master-alternatives> Yes 6.4.11 <fo:conditional-page-master-reference> Yes 6.4.12 <fo:simple-page-master> Yes 6.4.13 <fo:region-body> Yes 6.4.14 <fo:region-before> Yes 6.4.15 <fo:region-after> Yes 6.4.16 <fo:region-start> Yes 6.4.17 <fo:region-end> Yes 6.4.18 <fo:flow> Yes 6.4.19 <fo:static-content> Yes 6.4.20 <fo:title> No 6.5.2 <fo:block> Yes 6.5.3 <fo:block-container> Yes 6.6.2 <fo:bidi-override> Yes 6.6.3 <fo:character> Yes 6.6.4 <fo:initial-property-set> Yes 6.6.5 <fo:external-graphic> Yes 6.6.6 <fo:instream-foreign-object> Yes[a] 6.6.7 <fo:inline> Yes 6.6.8 <fo:inline-container> No[b] 6.6.9 <fo:leader> Yes[c] 6.6.10 <fo:page-number> Yes 6.6.11 <fo:page-number-citation> Yes 6.7.2 <fo:table-and-caption> Yes 6.7.3 <fo:table> Yes 6.7.4 <fo:table-column> Yes 6.7.5 <fo:table-caption> Yes 6.7.6 <fo:table-header> Yes 6.7.7 <fo:table-footer> Yes 6.7.8 <fo:table-body> Yes 6.7.9 <fo:table-row> Yes 6.7.10 <fo:table-cell> Yes 6.8.2 <fo:list-block> Yes 6.8.3 <fo:list-item> Yes 6.8.4 <fo:list-item-body> Yes 6.8.5 <fo:list-item-label> Yes 6.9.2 <fo:basic-link> Yes 6.9.3 <fo:multi-switch> - 6.9.4 <fo:multi-case> - 6.9.5 <fo:multi-toggle> - 6.9.6 <fo:multi-properties> - 6.9.7 <fo:multi-property-set> - 6.10.2 <fo:float> Yes[d] 6.10.3 <fo:footnote> Yes 6.10.4 <fo:footnote-body> Yes 6.11.2 <fo:wrapper> Yes 6.11.3 <fo:marker> Yes[e] 6.11.4 <fo:retrieve-marker> Yes [a] <fo:instream-foreign-object> can host SVG graphics. [b] All content is placed inline. [c] In this version, only plain text can be put inside leaders with leader-pattern="use-content". [d] Top-floats (float="before") area is drawn on top of the following page. [e] In the current version, markers cannot be specified as children of <fo:wrapper>. ### Formatting Properties Supported by XEP § Property Name Implemented 7.4.1 source-document No 7.4.2 role No 7.5.1 absolute-position Yes[a] 7.5.2 top Yes 7.5.3 right Yes 7.5.4 bottom Yes 7.5.5 left Yes 7.6.1 azimuth - 7.6.2 cue-after - 7.6.3 cue-before - 7.6.4 elevation - 7.6.5 pause-after - 7.6.6 pause-before - 7.6.7 pitch - 7.6.8 pitch-range - 7.6.9 play-during - 7.6.10 richness - 7.6.11 speak - 7.6.12 speak-header - 7.6.13 speak-numeral - 7.6.14 speak-punctuation - 7.6.15 speech-rate - 7.6.16 stress - 7.6.17 voice-family - 7.6.18 volume - 7.7.1 background-attachment Yes 7.7.2 background-color Yes 7.7.3 background-image Yes 7.7.4 background-repeat Yes 7.7.5 background-position-horizontal Yes[b] 7.7.6 background-position-vertical Yes[b] 7.7.7 border-before-color Yes 7.7.8 border-before-style Yes 7.7.9 border-before-width Yes 7.7.10 border-after-color Yes 7.7.11 border-after-style Yes 7.7.12 border-after-width Yes 7.7.13 border-start-color Yes 7.7.14 border-start-style Yes 7.7.15 border-start-width Yes 7.7.16 border-end-color Yes 7.7.17 border-end-style Yes 7.7.18 border-end-width Yes 7.7.19 border-top-color Yes 7.7.20 border-top-style Yes 7.7.21 border-top-width Yes 7.7.22 border-bottom-color Yes 7.7.23 border-bottom-style Yes 7.7.24 border-bottom-width Yes 7.7.25 border-left-color Yes 7.7.26 border-left-style Yes 7.7.27 border-left-width Yes 7.7.28 border-right-color Yes 7.7.29 border-right-style Yes 7.7.30 border-right-width Yes 7.7.31 padding-before Yes 7.7.32 padding-after Yes 7.7.33 padding-start Yes 7.7.34 padding-end Yes 7.7.35 padding-top Yes 7.7.36 padding-bottom Yes 7.7.37 padding-left Yes 7.7.38 padding-right Yes 7.8.2 font-family Yes 7.8.3 font-selection-strategy Yes 7.8.4 font-size Yes 7.8.5 font-stretch Yes 7.8.6 font-size-adjust Yes 7.8.7 font-style Yes 7.8.8 font-variant No 7.8.9 font-weight Yes 7.9.1 country No 7.9.2 language Yes 7.9.3 script No 7.9.4 hyphenate Yes 7.9.5 hyphenation-character Yes 7.9.6 hyphenation-push-character-count Yes 7.9.7 hyphenation-remain-character-count Yes 7.10.1 margin-top Yes 7.10.2 margin-bottom Yes 7.10.3 margin-left Yes 7.10.4 margin-right Yes 7.10.5 space-before Yes 7.10.6 space-after Yes[c] 7.10.7 start-indent Yes 7.10.8 end-indent Yes 7.11.1 space-end Yes 7.11.2 space-start Yes 7.12.1 relative-position No 7.13.1 alignment-adjust Yes 7.13.2 alignment-baseline Yes 7.13.3 baseline-shift Yes 7.13.4 display-align Yes 7.13.5 dominant-baseline Yes 7.13.6 relative-align Yes[d] 7.14.1 block-progression-dimension Yes 7.14.2 content-height Yes[e] 7.14.3 content-width Yes[e] 7.14.4 height Yes 7.14.5 inline-progression-dimension Yes 7.14.6 max-height No[f] 7.14.7 max-width No[g] 7.14.8 min-height No[h] 7.14.9 min-width No[i] 7.14.10 scaling Yes 7.14.11 scaling-method No 7.14.12 width Yes 7.15.1 hyphenation-keep No 7.15.2 hyphenation-ladder-count No 7.15.3 last-line-end-indent Yes 7.15.4 line-height Yes 7.15.5 line-height-shift-adjustment Yes 7.15.6 line-stacking-strategy Yes 7.15.7 linefeed-treatment Yes[j] 7.15.8 white-space-treatment Yes 7.15.9 text-align Yes[k] 7.15.10 text-align-last Yes 7.15.11 text-indent Yes 7.15.12 white-space-collapse Yes[l] 7.15.13 wrap-option Yes 7.16.1 character Yes 7.16.2 letter-spacing Yes 7.16.3 suppress-at-line-break No 7.16.4 text-decoration Yes 7.16.5 text-shadow Yes[m] 7.16.6 text-transform Yes[n] 7.16.7 treat-as-word-space No 7.16.8 word-spacing Yes 7.17.1 color Yes 7.17.2 color-profile-name No 7.17.3 rendering-intent No 7.18.1 clear Yes 7.18.2 float Yes[o] 7.18.3 intrusion-displace Yes[p] 7.19.1 break-after Yes 7.19.2 break-before Yes 7.19.3 keep-together Yes[q] 7.19.4 keep-with-next Yes[q] 7.19.5 keep-with-previous Yes[q] 7.19.6 orphans Yes 7.19.7 widows Yes 7.20.1 clip No 7.20.2 overflow Yes[r] 7.20.3 reference-orientation Yes 7.20.4 span Yes 7.21.1 leader-alignment No 7.21.2 leader-pattern Yes 7.21.3 leader-pattern-width Yes 7.21.4 leader-length Yes 7.21.5 rule-style Yes 7.21.6 rule-thickness Yes 7.22.1 active-state - 7.22.2 auto-restore - 7.22.3 case-name - 7.22.4 case-title - 7.22.5 destination-placement-offset No 7.22.6 external-destination Yes[s] 7.22.7 indicate-destination No 7.22.8 internal-destination Yes 7.22.9 show-destination Yes[t] 7.22.10 starting-state - 7.22.11 switch-to - 7.22.12 target-presentation-context - 7.22.13 target-processing-context - 7.22.14 target-stylesheet - 7.23.1 marker-class-name Yes 7.23.2 retrieve-class-name Yes 7.23.3 retrieve-position Yes 7.23.4 retrieve-boundary Yes 7.24.1 format Yes 7.24.2 grouping-separator No 7.24.3 grouping-size No 7.24.4 letter-value No 7.25.1 blank-or-not-blank Yes 7.25.2 column-count Yes 7.25.3 column-gap Yes 7.25.4 extent Yes 7.25.5 flow-name Yes 7.25.6 force-page-count Yes[u] 7.25.7 initial-page-number Yes 7.25.8 master-name Yes 7.25.9 master-reference Yes 7.25.10 maximum-repeats Yes 7.25.11 media-usage No 7.25.12 odd-or-even Yes 7.25.13 page-height Yes 7.25.14 page-position Yes 7.25.15 page-width Yes 7.25.16 precedence Yes 7.25.17 region-name Yes 7.26.1 border-after-precedence Yes 7.26.2 border-before-precedence Yes 7.26.3 border-collapse Yes 7.26.4 border-end-precedence Yes 7.26.5 border-separation Yes 7.26.6 border-start-precedence Yes 7.26.7 caption-side Yes[v] 7.26.8 column-number Yes 7.26.9 column-width Yes 7.26.10 empty-cells No[w] 7.26.11 ends-row Yes 7.26.12 number-columns-repeated Yes 7.26.13 number-columns-spanned Yes 7.26.14 number-rows-spanned Yes 7.26.15 starts-row Yes 7.26.16 table-layout Yes 7.26.17 table-omit-footer-at-break Yes 7.26.18 table-omit-header-at-break Yes 7.27.1 direction Yes 7.27.2 glyph-orientation-horizontal No 7.27.3 glyph-orientation-vertical No 7.27.4 text-altitude Yes 7.27.5 text-depth Yes 7.27.6 unicode-bidi Yes[x] 7.27.7 writing-mode Yes[y] 7.28.1 content-type Yes 7.28.2 id Yes 7.28.3 provisional-label-separation Yes 7.28.4 provisional-distance-between-starts Yes 7.28.5 ref-id Yes 7.28.6 score-spaces No 7.28.7 src Yes[z] 7.28.8 visibility No 7.28.9 z-index Yes[aa] 7.29.1 background Yes 7.29.2 background-position Yes 7.29.3 border Yes 7.29.4 border-bottom Yes 7.29.5 border-color Yes 7.29.6 border-left Yes 7.29.7 border-right Yes 7.29.8 border-style Yes 7.29.9 border-spacing Yes 7.29.10 border-top Yes 7.29.11 border-width Yes 7.29.12 cue - 7.29.13 font Yes 7.29.14 margin Yes 7.29.15 padding Yes 7.29.16 page-break-after Yes 7.29.17 page-break-before Yes 7.29.18 page-break-inside Yes 7.29.19 pause - 7.29.20 position Yes 7.29.21 size Yes 7.29.22 vertical-align Yes 7.29.23 white-space Yes 7.29.24 xml:lang No [a] absolute-position="fixed" works on <fo:block-container> only. [b] When the background image is repeated along an axis, its offset on this axis is ignored. [c] space-after.conditionality="discard" is not implemented, fallback value is "retain". [d] Supported on <fo:list-item>. On <fo:table-cell> elements, falls back to relative-align="before". [e] The values "scale-up-to-fit" and "scale-down-to-fit" introduced in XSL 1.1, as well as the attributes allowed-width-scale and allowed-height-scale, are supported starting from XEP 4.19. [f] Maps to height. [g] Maps to width. [h] Maps to height. [i] Maps to width. [j] Value "treat-as-zero-width-space" for linefeed-treatment is not implemented. This property does not work on inlines. [k] <string> values for text-align are not implemented. text-align on <fo:table-and-caption> is not implemented. [l] This property does not work on inlines. [m] Blurred shadows are not supported; blur radius is ignored. [n] To transform a Unicode character to uppercase/lowercase, XEP uses methods provided by the runtime (Java or .NET). In order for this property to work as expected, you should use correct Unicode values for glyphs in your fonts, and set up local information in your environment properly. [o] Two additional values, "inside" and "outside", are supported. Their meaning is the same as in text-align property. [p] "indent" value is not implemented. [q] .within-page component is unsupported; it is mapped to .within-column. Only "auto" and "always" values are recognized properly: numeric values are treated as "always". In tables, keep-with-previous/keep-with-next traits ignore table headers and footers: e.g. keep-with-previous condition specified on a row will keep it with the previous one regardless of the intervening header. If specified on the first row of the first <fo:table-body> in a table, keep-with-previous will attach the whole table to the preceding block-level element. [r] Supported on side floats and absolutely positioned and rotated block-containers with fixed dimensions. When "error-if-overflow" is specified, a warning is issued on overflow, and the element is discarded in the same way as for "hidden" value. [s] In PDF and PostScript generators, URLs starting with explicit "file:" protocol specification are rendered as PDF-to-PDF links ("remote go-to actions"). All other links are treated as Internet URIs, and open in a browser. [t] show-destination is honored for creation of links between PDF documents ("remote go-to actions") in PDF and PostScript generators. In other cases, the attribute is not applicable. [u] Value domain "xN" where x is a literal "x" and N is and integer greater than 1 is a RenderX extension. An <fo:page-sequence> with such value of force-page-count generates a number of pages that is a multiple of N. Blank pages are padded to satisfy this requirement. [v] Only "before" and "after" values are implemented: caption-side="start" falls back to "before," and caption-side="end" falls back to "after." [w] In the current implementation, all cells present in the source document are shown regardless of whether their content is empty; cells not presented in the source aren't visible at all. [x] Bidi implementation differs from Unicode Bidi algorithm: any markup element opens a new level of embedding. Consequently, unicode-bidi="normal" is not supported (treated as "embed"); see detailed discussion below. [y] Only "lr-tb" and "rl-tb" values are supported. All other values are treated as "lr-tb." [z] In addition to protocols provided by the runtime (Java or .NET), XEP supports data: URI scheme (RFC 2397). [aa] z-index property is supported for block-containers with absolute-position="fixed". ### Notes on Formatting Objects Implementation <fo:block> According to the specification, an empty block that has a non-null padding and/or border should be visible. XEP suppresses all blocks that have no visible contents regardless of their border or padding attributes. <fo:bidi-override> In the current implementation of bidi algorithm, any markup element opens a new level of embedding. Consequently, unicode-bidi="normal" is not supported: <fo:bidi-override> behaves as if unicode-bidi="embed" were specified. <fo:inline-container> Unsupported; contents are placed inline. <fo:multi-switch>, <fo:multi-case>, <fo:multi-toggle>, <fo:multi-properties>, <fo:multi-property-set> Unsupported; contents are ignored. These elements deal with interactivity. Since PDF and PostScript are intrinsically static formats, none of them are applicable. <fo:float> The before-float appears at the top of the next page. <fo:table-caption> Only "before" and "after" captions are implemented. Side captions are treated as follows: caption-side="start" falls back to "before", and caption-side="end" falls back to "after." <fo:table-footer> Table footer repetition is not implemented. The element is drawn once at the end of table. <fo:table-column> In the collapsed border model, only border-start and border-end are supported on <fo:table-column> elements. <fo:table-row> In the collapsed border model, only border-before and border-after are supported on <fo:table-row> elements. <fo:table-cell> If a cell spans multiple rows in a table with a collapsed border model, its border-after is taken from the row where the cell begins. <fo:leader> In this version, leaders with leader-pattern="use-content" can only contain plain text inside; all formatting is lost. <fo:marker> This version cannot process markers specified as children of an <fo:wrapper>. ### Supported Expressions XEP implements a subset of XSL algebraic expressions. The following operators and functions are recognized: • Arithmetical operators: +, -, *, div, mod • floor() • ceiling() • round() • abs() • max() • min() • rgb() • rgb-icc() (supported partially — see notes below) • from-nearest-specified-value() • from-parent() • from-table-column() • inherited-property-value() • proportional-column-width() • body-start() (standalone use only, cannot be an operand in expressions) • label-end() (standalone use only, cannot be an operand in expressions) Function rgb-icc() recognizes four predefined color profile names: #Grayscale, #CMYK, #SpotColor, and #Registration (see details below). For any other value of the fourth parameter, the function returns the fallback RGB color. ICC profiles are not supported. Support for expressions is subject to the following limitations: • For compound expressions, the result of evaluation of all intermediate subexpressions must be a valid XSL type. For example, expression (2in * 2in) div 1in is not supported because its first subexpression yields dimensionality of square inches, which is not a valid XSL unit; while 2in * (2in div 1in) works. • Expressions that require knowledge of layout to evaluate (e.g. Block widths expressed in percentages) can only be used as standalone expressions, not parts of a bigger expression, and cannot be referenced by property-value functions. The same limitation applies to body-start() and label-end() functions. • Property value functions (from-nearest-specified-value(), from-parent(), from-table-column(), inherited-property-value()) cannot be used in shorthands, and cannot take shorthand property names as their arguments. • Property value functions that take start-indent/end-indent as arguments may not work correctly if the block with indents is placed into another block that has CSS-style margin-* attributes. For safety, use either expressions with indents, or CSS margins; mixing these two coding styles in the same stylesheet may yield unpredictable results. ### Color Specifiers XEP can produce PDF and PostScript output using the following color types: 1. Grayscale. The following specifiers produce grayscale color output: • Predefined HTML and SVG names that correspond to RGB values with R = G = B: white, black, silver, gray, grey, lightgray, lightgrey, darkgray, darkgrey, dimgray, dimgrey, whitesmoke, gainsboro. • HTML-style RGB values with R = G = B: #555, #9D9D9D, etc. • rgb-icc() function with built-in #Grayscale pseudo profile. Gray tone intensity is specified as a real value in the range 0.01.0, the 5th argument to the function. Example: rgb-icc (128, 128, 128, #Grayscale, 0.5) 2. RGB. The following specifiers produce RGB color output: • HTML and SVG predefined names, and RGB specifiers that are not mentioned above. • rgb() function. Values of color components are specified as real values in the range 0.0255.0. Example: rgb (127.5, 39.86, 255) 3. CMYK. The following specifier produce CMYK color output: • rgb-icc() function with built-in #CMYK pseudo profile. Ink values are specified as real values in the range 0.01.0, arguments from 5th to 8th; order of inks is cyanmagentayellowblack. Example: rgb-icc (255, 255, 0, #CMYK, 0, 0, 1, 0) 4. Spot colors. The following specifiers produce spot color output: • rgb-icc() function with built-in #SpotColor pseudo profile. The 5th argument is the colorant name, specified as a string; use quotes if the name contains spaces. The 6th argument is the tint value, specified as a real number in the range 0.01.0. These mandatory attributes may be followed by an optional specification of the alternate color for the colorant, in either CMYK or grayscale color space: 7th argument is the color space name (either #CMYK or #Grayscale), and the rest are component intensities (1 for grayscale, 4 for CMYK). ### Note: The alternate color specifies an equivalent representation for the full colorant intensity. Occurrences of the same spot color with different tints should have the same alternate color specifier. If the alternate color is not specified, XEP looks it up in SpotColor matching table (path to the table is defined by the <SPOT_COLOR_TRANSLATION_TABLE> option); if no matches found, black color in grayscale color space is used. Examples: rgb-icc(255,255,0, #SpotColor,'PANTONE Orange 021 C',0.33) rgb-icc(255,255,0, #SpotColor,'PANTONE 169 M',0.5, #CMYK,0,0.2,0.2,0) rgb-icc(255,255,0, #SpotColor,MyColor,0.33, #Grayscale,0.5) 5. Registration color. The following specifier produces registration (all-colorants) color output: • rgb-icc() function with built-in #Registration pseudo profile. Tint intensity is specified as a real value in the range 0.01.0, the 5th argument to the function. Example: rgb-icc (128, 128, 128, #Registration, 0.5) ### XSL 1.1 Support XSL 1.1 Recommendation introduced a number of new features compared to XSL 1.0. Some of these new features closely match existing RenderX extensions. Before version 4.19, XEP included an XSLT stylesheet to convert XSL 1.1 elements and attributes to XSL 1.0 with RenderX extensions. In version 4.19 and later this conversion is perfomed in Java code for higher perfomance and lower memory requirements. The new features of XSL 1.1 that are supported by converting to RenderX extensions are the following: 1. Document Outline (Bookmarks) 2. Indexes 3. Last Page Number Reference 4. Change Bars 5. Folio Prefix and Suffix Since there is no correspondence in RenderX extensions for some elements and attributes from XSL 1.1, they are ignored by XEP core. Following is a list of unsupported XSL 1.1 elements and attributes: • fo:page-sequence-wrapper • fo:flow-map • fo:flow-assignment • fo:flow-source-list • fo:flow-target-list • fo:flow-name-specifier • fo:region-name-specifier • fo:index-page-number-prefix • fo:index-page-number-suffix • @index-class • @merge-ranges-across-index-key-references • @merge-pages-across-index-key-references • fo:scaling-value-citation #### Document Outline (Bookmarks) § XSL 1.1 Object/Property Name RenderX Extensions Object/Property Name 6.11.1 <fo:bookmark-tree> <rx:outline> 6.11.2 <fo:bookmark> <rx:bookmark> 6.11.3 <fo:bookmark-title> <rx:bookmark-label> 7.23.6 external-destination external-destination 7.23.8 internal-destination internal-destination 7.23.10 starting-state collapse-subtree 7.18.1 color color 7.9.7 font-style font-style 7.9.9 font-weight font-weight ### Note: The appearance of bookmark label (color, font-style and font-weight attributes) is only supported in the PDF generator staring from XEP 4.19, and only if the PDF_VERSION option is set to 1.4 or higher. #### Indexes § XSL 1.1 Object/Property Name RenderX Extensions Object/Property Name 6.10.2 <fo:index-page-number-prefix> No correspondence, ignored 6.10.3 <fo:index-page-number-suffix> No correspondence, ignored 6.10.4 <fo:index-range-begin> <rx:begin-index-range> 6.10.5 <fo:index-range-end> <rx:end-index-range> 6.10.6 <fo:index-key-reference> <rx:index-item> 6.10.7 <fo:index-page-citation-list> <rx:page-index> 6.10.8 <fo:index-page-citation-list-separator> list-separator 6.10.9 <fo:index-page-citation-range-separator> range-separator 7.24.1 index-class  No correspondence, ignored 7.24.2 index-key rx:key 7.24.3 page-number-treatment link-back 7.24.4 merge-ranges-across-index-key-references  No correspondence, ignored 7.24.5 merge-sequential-page-numbers merge-subsequent-page-numbers 7.24.6 merge-pages-across-index-key-references  No correspondence, ignored 7.24.7 ref-index-key <rx:index-item>/ref-key 7.30.8 id id 7.30.13 ref-id ref-id #### Last Page Number Reference § XSL 1.1 Object Name RenderX Extensions Object Name 6.6.12 <fo:page-number-citation-last> <rx:page-number-citation-last> The only required attribute, ref-id, specifies the id of the element whose last page number is retrieved. #### Change Bars § XSL 1.1 Object Name RenderX Extensions Object Name 6.13.2 <fo:change-bar-begin> <rx:change-bar-begin> 6.13.3 <fo:change-bar-end> <rx:change-bar-begin> All properties of <fo:change-bar-begin> and <fo:change-bar-end> map to themselves. #### Folio Prefix and Suffix § XSL 1.1 Object Name XSL 1.0 Object Name 6.6.13 <fo:folio-prefix> <the content> 6.6.14 <fo:folio-suffix> <the content> The content of <fo:folio-prefix> (<fo:folio-suffix>) is added inline before (after) all occurrences of <fo:page-number>, <fo:page-number-citation>, and <fo:page-number-citation-last> referring to elements in the respective <fo:page-sequence>. In case of <fo:page-number> it is always the current page sequence. ### Note: Starting from XEP 4.19, support for <fo:folio-prefix> and <fo:folio-suffix> on <fo:page-number> is always on. However, the respective support for these features on <fo:page-number-citation> and <fo:page-number-citation-last>, implemented in Java, requires a second pass, which takes some additional time and memory due to existence of forward references. The availability of this feature on these referential elements is controlled by the (new in 4.19) core option ENABLE_FOLIO, which is disabled by default. ### Extensions to the XSL 1.0 Recommendation XEP implements several extensions to the Specification, placed into a separate namespace: xmlns:rx="http://www.renderx.com/XSL/Extensions". They add support for useful functionality that cannot be expressed by XSL Formatting Objects. #### Document Information This extension permits passing a set of name/value pairs to the generator of the output format. A typical application is setting PDF document info fields (‘Author’ and ‘Title’). Implementation uses two extension elements: <rx:meta-info> and <rx:meta-field>. <rx:meta-info> This element is merely a container for one or more <rx:meta-field> elements. It should be the first child of <fo:root>. <rx:meta-field> This element specifies a single name/value pair. It has two mandatory attributes: name and value. Current implementation of the PDF and PostScript generators recognize six possible values for name: • name="author"- fills the ‘Author’ field in the resulting PDF file with a string specified by the value property. • name="creator" - fills the ‘Creator’ field. • name="title" - fills the ‘Title’ field. • name="subject" - fills the ‘Subject’ field. • name="keywords" - fills the ‘Keywords’ field. • name="publisher" - fills the ‘Publisher’ field (in XMP metadata only). The ‘Producer’ field in the PDF file is set to "XEP 4.18"; there is no means to control it from the source file. All other values for name are treated as custom meta-fields and appear in the same dictionaries in PostScript and PDF as predefined meta-fields. Unicode values for name are not supported. In the PostScript generator module, the document info fields are added using the pdfmark operator. The respective fields are filled when PostScript is converted to PDF using Adobe Acrobat Distiller or GhostScript. #### Document Outline (Bookmarks) Implementation of a document outline uses the following three extension elements: • <rx:outline> - The top-level element of the document outline tree. It should be located before any <fo:page-sequence> elements, and after the <fo:layout-master-set> and the <fo:declarations> elements (if present). It contains one or more <rx:bookmark> elements. • <rx:bookmark> - This element contains information about a single bookmark. It contains a mandatory <rx:bookmark-label> element as its first child, and zero or more nested <rx:bookmark> elements that describe nested bookmarks. Bookmark destination is expressed either by internal-destination property (for internal navigation), or by external-destination (for extra-document links). The initial presentation of the children bookmarks is controlled by collapse-subtree attribute. Values are either "true" (collapse children) or "false" (expand children). ### Note: The default value for collapse-subtree was "true" until XEP 4.19. However, the matching XSL 1.1 attribute starting-state has the default value of "show", so in XEP 4.19 and later the default behavior is that of XSL 1.1, i.e. to expand children. • <rx:bookmark-label> - This element contains text of a bookmark label. It must be the first child of its parent <fo:bookmark>. Content of this element should be plain text. The appearance of bookmark label is controlled by color, font-style and font-weight attributes, itroduced in XSL 1.1 and supported in XEP from version 4.19. #### Indexes Building page number lists for back-of-the-book indexes is a common task. It is relatively easy to collect a list of references to index terms in the text; but then, to turn them into a real index entry, you should exclude repeated page numbers and merge adjacent numbers into ranges. Neither of these two operations can be done in XSL 1.0. Therefore, XEP supports an extension for this purpose. The task of building an index can be split in two subtasks: • Mark up occurrences of index terms in the main text. • Specify composition and formatting of page number lists in the index. ##### Index Term Markup In order to mark up occurences of the index terms in the text, XEP introduces a special extension attribute: rx:key. It can be specified on any element that can take an id attribute; unlike the latter, it need not be unique across the document. Its value is used as a key to select elements for the page number list. For example, an index term to the word "rendering" might look like this: The process of converting XSL-FO to a printable format is called <fo:inline rx:key="key.render">rendering.</fo:inline> There is also a mechanism to specify an explicit range, not distinct elements. Two extension elements serve this purpose: <rx:begin-index-range> Starts a range. It takes two attributes, both required: id A unique identifier used to define the limits of the range. rx:key Index key used to select the range into a page number list. <rx:end-index-range> Ends a range. It takes one attribute, required: ref-id A reference to the id attribute of the <rx:begin-index-range> that started the range. These two elements always form a pair. These elements may be located anywhere inside <fo:flow>; there are no constraints on their nesting with respect to other elements. ##### Index Entries In the index, the actual page reference is created by another extension element, <rx:page-index>. It picks elements from the text by their rx:key properties, and produces a sorted list of their page numbers, eliminating duplicates. <rx:page-index> should contain one or more <rx:index-item> elements as children. Each <rx:index-item> has a required ref-key attribute, and selects elements that have an rx:key  attribute with the same value. A distinct element bearing the appropriate rx:key value is represented as follows: • If it fits completely onto one page, it is represented as a single page number. • If it spans multiple pages, its entry is formatted as a range from the first to the last of the spanned pages. A range (created by a <rx:begin-index-range> and <rx:end-index-range> element pair) is represented as a range from the page where <rx:begin-index-range> is located to the page of its matching <rx:end-index-range>. A basic entry in an index looks like this: <fo:inline rx:key="key.elephant">Elephants</fo:inline> live in Africa. … <fo:inline rx:key="key.elephant">African elephants</fo:inline> have big ears … … <fo:block text-align="center" font="bold 16pt Futura">INDEX</fo:block> <fo:block> Elephants <rx:page-index> <rx:index-item ref-key="key.elephant"/> </rx:page-index> </fo:block>  There are other attributes of <rx:index-item> to control the formatting of the index entry: range-separator Specifies the string used to separate page numbers that form a continuous range. Default is en dash: "–" (U+2013). merge-subsequent-page-numbers Controls whether sequences of adjacent page numbers should be merged into ranges. Default is "true." ### Note: The default value for property merge-subsequent-page-numbers was "false" before XEP 4.19. However, the matching XSL 1.1 property merge-sequential-page-numbers has the default value of "merge". This conflict of defaults has been resolved in XEP 4.19 in favour of XSL 1.1, and the default behavior is to merge. link-back If set to "true", page numbers are made into hyperlinks to the corresponding page. Default is "false." Besides that, <rx:index-item> can take additional inline attributes, applied to each page number generated from this element. This allows for different presentation styles across the list, e.g. To make references to primary definitions bold. #### Flow Sections Flow sections permit splitting the flow into subflows, with different column counts in each subflow. The following element creates flow sections: <rx:flow-section> This element must be a direct child of <fo:flow>. It can be mixed with other block-level elements. It takes two attributes: column-count, the number of columns for the subflow, and columngap, the space between the columns. #### Last Page Number Reference This extension element retrieves the number of the last page occupied by a particular element. Its syntax and semantics are similar to fo:page-number-citation. <rx:page-number-citation-last> The only required attribute, ref-id, specifies the id of the element whose last page number you want to retrieve. In particular, by referencing the id of the <fo:root> element, it is possible to retrieve the number of the last page in the document. ### Note: This element is described in XSL 1.1 Working Draft of 17 December 2003. In subsequent versions of XEP, it is likely to move to the standard XSL-FO namespace. #### Change Bars XEP has support for change regions, as described in XSL 1.1 Working Draft of December 16, 2004. <rx:change-bar-begin>, <rx:change-bar-end> These elements have exactly the same meaning and properties as listed in the Working Draft for elements <fo:change-bar-begin> and <fo:change-bar-end>, sections 6.3.12 and 6.3.13, respectively. In future versions of XEP, when XSL 1.1 will become the W3C Recommendation, they will be moved to the standard XSL-FO namespace. ### Note: The content model for these elements is different than the description in the Working Draft. The Working Draft, Section 6.2, says the following about change-bar-begin/end elements: [“The following formatting objects are "neutral" containers and may be used, provided that the additional constraints listed under each formatting object are satisfied, anywhere where #PCDATA, %block;, or %inline; are allowed”.] This essentially forbids change-bar-begin/end elements to appear almost anywhere in the lists or tables, for example, it’s not possible to mark a whole list-item or table-cell as “changed.” XEP implementation does not have such limitations, change bar anchors can be placed almost anywhere in the flow. #### Background Image Scaling and Content Type In XSL 1.0, there is no provision to scale/size a background image. XEP implements this functionality via the following extension properties: rx:background-content-height, rx:background-content-width, rx:background-scaling, rx:background-content-type These properties have exactly the same semantics as content-height, content-width, scaling, and content-type, respectively. They apply to the image specified in background-image property (or inside background shorthand). #### Initial Destination This extension allows you to specify the destination to jump to when the document is first opened. It uses a single extension attribute, rx:initial-destination placed on <fo:root>; its syntax is the same as the internal-destination attribute. #### Omitted Initial Header in Tables This extension permits you to omit a table header at the beginning of a table. This feature can be used to create "continuation headers", which are output only on page breaks. It uses a single extension attribute, rx:table-omit-initial-header placed on <fo:table>. The property has a Boolean value: "true" or "false" — same as for table-omit-header-at-break. #### Base URI Definition: xml:base XEP recognizes and processes xml:base attribute, defined in XML Base Recommendation. It permits you to set the base for resolving relative URIs (link targets, image locations, fonts, hyphenation patterns, etc) for the whole document or a single subtree. ### Note: The use of xml:base in XSL is not authorized by the XSL Specification; therefore, this option should be considered a proprietary extension to XSL. #### Border and Padding on Regions In the XSL Recommendation, border and padding properties are permitted on region elements (<fo:region-body>, <fo:region-before>, <fo:region-after>, <fo:region-start>, and <fo:region-end>). However, they may accept values of 0 (sic!). In XEP, non-zero values of these properties result in a border around the respective region area, and its content rectangle is padded by the specified amount. ### Note: When validation strictness level is 2, the validator issues a warning about nonzero borders and padding on regions. #### Floats Alignment Floating figures often need to float towards different sides of the page depending on their parity. However in XSL 1.0 Recommendation there is no means to achieve such effect. XEP supports two additional values for float property of the <fo:float> element. Those values are: "inside" and "outside". Their meaning is the same as in text-align property defined by XSL 1.0 Recommendation: "inside" value aligns floating block to the inner edge of the page (left for odd pages, right for even pages) and "outside" aligns floating block to the outer edge of the page (right for odd pages, left for even pages). This functionality is often used to create margin notes known as "marginalia." #### Multicolumn Footnotes Some documents have many short footnotes per page, and according to the Recommendation all the footnotes are stacked ontop of each other. This results in a lot of white space to the right of the footnotes in footnote-reference-area. XEP supports two additional attributes: footnote-column-count and footnote-column-gap on <fo:region-body>. They have the same meaning as column-count and column-gap and result in footnote-reference-area having the required number of columns separated with gaps. XEP balances the footnotes among the columns in footnote-reference-area, which makes the area be filled better and have smaller height, leaving more space for the body. ### Note: The balancing algorithm is iterative and may affect performance in corner cases. The best quality of balancing is achieved in the most common cases: for short footnotes. #### Unique Footnotes There is a user's request to collapse footnote-bodies on a page if their anchors read the same. This is useful if, for example, several values in table cells must be marked with one and the same note. The Recommendation does not provide a way to achieve this, because one must know beforehand how the footnotes will be distributed among pages. XEP can handle this request properly. A footnote-body will not be added to the footnote-reference-area if there is a footnote-body starting on this page wich has the same value of id. In other words, footnotes with equal footnote-body/@id collapse to one per page. ### Note: If a footnote-body starts on page N and continues on page N+1, there may appear another footnote-body with the same id on page N+1: the tail of a footnote may not collapse. ### Note: Collapsed footnote-bodies are treated as if they were empty. Any special content (a term for the index, a target for a link, a part of a 'paired' element such a change-bar or an index-range) will be ignored. Avoid using such content together with the 'unique footnotes' feature. #### Watermark In mass print large number of pages differ in content, but not in static regions. XEP spends a significant share of time formatting static regions on each page. The request is to avoid formatting common parts of pages on each page to save time, and instead pick them up from an XEPOUT file prepared beforehand. XEP provides an extension for this request: rx:watermark attribute on <fo:simple-page-master>. The value of rx:watermark is an URI reference to an XEP intermediate format file. For every page created with a given page master, the content of the first <xep:page> of master's watermark file will be drawn before anything else on the page. ### Note: This extension saves formatting time for static contents, but does not reduce the time required to generate it to an output format. ### Note: Do not forget to remove targets and bookmarks from a watermark file. ### Note: No scaling is performed on the content of the watermark file, it is 'played' as is. #### Transpromo Empty space often appears at the bottom of pages, especially of the last pages of page sequences. This space may be used for ads. Arbitrary content of a flow makes it impossible to tell how much space will be left on the last page beforehand, so for arbitrary content there is no way to determine the size of the ads box that will fit without making the flow content go to yet another page. Having a set of ads boxes of different size, users need a way to place the largest such box (just one) that fits on the last page. 'Transpromo' is an extension to the page master selection algorithm that makes XEP iterate over a set of page masters that suite for 'last' until it finds one where all the tail of the flow content fits. For the sake of compatibility, alternatives for 'any' are not considered in the loop. With the extended algorithm users may specify a set of <fo:conditional-page-master-references>, all with page-position='last', in desired order. These page masters may, for example, have different extent on <fo:region-after>, from large to small values (in order of reading the <fo:conditional-page-master-references> in <fo:repeatable-page-master-alternatives>). The <fo:page-sequence> will have the respective set of <fo:static-contents> with the ads boxes. The largest box that fits together with the flow content will succeed, and formatting will end. The extended algorithm works similarly for the page masters for 'only'. #### PDF Forms Starting with version 4.16, XEP is able to produce PDF documents with interactive forms. This feature is controlled by a special license key file. The new extension element <pdf-form-field> with it's descendants describes a single field in the form. This element and it's descendants exist both in 'rx:' and in 'xep:' namespaces, so one may define fields in XSL FO documents or in XEP Intermediate Format documents. In XSL FO the element <rx:pdf-form-field> is allowed as a direct child of <fo:inline> or <fo:block-container> only. When the document is rendered the field is attached to the first area produced by it's parent <fo:inline> or <fo:block-container>. Empty inlines or block-containers without dimensions produce no areas, so make sure to add something into the inline besides the field, and add something into the block-container or set dimentionals on it. Otherwize the field may be skipped or become zero size. Type1 fonts in fields must use 'standard' encoding and may not be subset, so do not forget to add initial-encoding="standard" and subset="false" on the font-families used for fields in xep.xml. In XEPOUT the element <xep:pdf-form-field> additionally wears mandatory positioning attributes x-from, y-from, x-till, y-till. Positioning is usually calculated by XEP core during the rendering process, but may be altered in XEPOUT by the user. The following DTD defines the extension elements and attributes. Namespaces are skipped, which means that both 'rx:' and 'xep:' apply. In XEPOUT the fields look pretty much the same, with some differences. <!ENTITY % fields " pdf-form-field-text | pdf-form-field-radio-button | pdf-form-field-checkbox | pdf-form-field-listbox | pdf-form-field-combobox | pdf-form-field-reset | pdf-form-field-submit | pdf-form-field-option"> <!ENTITY % appearance_inh " font-family CDATA #IMPLIED | font-size CDATA #IMPLIED | font-weight CDATA #IMPLIED | font-style CDATA #IMPLIED | color CDATA #IMPLIED"> <!ENTITY % appearance " background-color CDATA #IMPLIED | border-width CDATA #IMPLIED | border-style CDATA #IMPLIED | border-color CDATA #IMPLIED"> <!ELEMENT pdf-form-field (%fields;)> <!-- just one particular field! --> <!ATTLIST pdf-form-field name CDATA #REQUIRED readonly (true | false) #IMPLIED required (true | false) #IMPLIED noexport (true | false) #IMPLIED hidden (true | false) #IMPLIED printable (true | false) #IMPLIED js-format CDATA #IMPLIED js-keystroke CDATA #IMPLIED js-validate CDATA #IMPLIED js-calculate CDATA #IMPLIED %appearance_inh; > <!-- pdf-form-field/@name must be unique within a document. All boolean attributes in pdf-form-field and it's descendants default to 'false', except for 'printable', which defaults to 'true'. The attributes js-* define JavaScripts to be executed by the reader on the respective events (4.17 and higher).--> <!ELEMENT pdf-form-field-text EMPTY> <!ATTLIST pdf-form-field-text text CDATA #REQUIRED multiline (true | false) #IMPLIED password (true | false) #IMPLIED maxlen CDATA #IMPLIED %appearance; %appearance_inh; > <!ELEMENT pdf-form-field-radio-button (pdf-form-field-option, pdf-form-field-option?)> <!-- The first child pdf-form-field-option describes the "On" state, the second one describes the "Off" state and is optional.--> <!ATTLIST pdf-form-field-radio-button group-name CDATA #REQUIRED %appearance; %appearance_inh; > <!-- @group-name must be the same for all radio-button fields of the same group. If the @group-name ends with "_NoToggleToOff" exactly one radio-button in the group will be "On" at any moment.--> <!ELEMENT pdf-form-field-checkbox (pdf-form-field-option, pdf-form-field-option?)> <!-- The first child pdf-form-field-option describes the "On" state, the second one describes the "Off" state and is optional.--> <!ATTLIST pdf-form-field-checkbox %appearance; %appearance_inh; > <!ELEMENT pdf-form-field-listbox (pdf-form-field-option+)> <!ATTLIST pdf-form-field-listbox multiselect (true | false) #IMPLIED %appearance; %appearance_inh; > <!-- @multiselect="true" is PDF 1.4+, for 1.3 the attribute is ignored. --> <!ELEMENT pdf-form-field-combobox (pdf-form-field-option+)> <!ATTLIST pdf-form-field-combobox editable (true | false) #IMPLIED multiselect (true | false) #IMPLIED %appearance; %appearance_inh; > <!-- @multiselect="true" is PDF 1.4+, for 1.3 the attribute is ignored. --> <!ELEMENT pdf-form-field-reset EMPTY> <!ATTLIST pdf-form-field-reset text CDATA #REQUIRED fields CDATA #IMPLIED %appearance; %appearance_inh; > <!-- @fields is a space separated list of field names to act on. --> <!ELEMENT pdf-form-field-submit EMPTY> <!ATTLIST pdf-form-field-submit text CDATA #REQUIRED url CDATA #REQUIRED submit-format (HTML | FDF | XFDF | PDF) #IMPLIED method (GET | POST) #IMPLIED fields CDATA #IMPLIED %appearance; %appearance_inh; > <!-- @fields is a space separated list of field names to act on. If a field which @name is on the @fields list has @noexport="true", the field's value is not submitted. @submit-format defaults to "FDF". @method defaults to "POST" and only applies to 'HTML' format. if @url is a 'mailto:', the form data will be sent by email.--> <!ELEMENT pdf-form-field-option EMPTY> <!ATTLIST pdf-form-field-option text CDATA #REQIRED initially-selected (true | false) #IMPLIED>  #### JavaScript for PDF Starting with version 4.17, XEP provides a way to add custom features for AcroFields defined as JavaScript scripts. These scripts are exectuted by the Reader application upon particular events that the user triggers on fields. The scripts are expressed as attributes on <rx:pdf-form-field> element: Table A.1. attribute example @js-format AFNumber_Format(2, 0, 0, 0, "", false); // Displaying a changed value. Doesn't affect initial view. // A number with two digits after the dot. @js-keystroke AFNumber_Keystroke(2, 0, 0, 0, "", false); // Validate and possibly reject each keystroke. @js-validate AFRange_Validate(true, 7, true, 31); // Leaving the field: validate the value or reject it. // 7 <= x <= 31 @js-calculate AFSimple_Calculate("SUM", new Array ("a", "b")); // Automatically calculate the value upon a change // in any other field. The calculation order is implicit. // If field 'a' or 'b' has changed, ajust the // value of the current field as the sum of them. The functions "AF*" mentioned above are built-in to Acrobat. It is also possible to provide a custom JavaScript library (a set of functions) for a PDF document. Functions defined in that library are available throughout the PDF document, including the hooks on the fields. The extension element <rx:pdf-javascript> requires a single attribute name and contains the library plain text, e.g. like this: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <fo:root xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format" xmlns:rx="http://www.renderx.com/XSL/Extensions"> <rx:pdf-javascript name="myJSLib"> function v_email() { var email = new RegExp(); email.compile("^[a-zA-Z0-9._-]+@[a-zA-Z0-9.-]+\.[a-zA-Z]{2,4}");
// not the best one though
if (!email.test(event.value)) {
event.rc = false; // do not accept the change of the value
}
};
</rx:pdf-javascript>
<fo:layout-master-set ... />
<fo:page-sequence master-reference="p">
<fo:flow flow-name="xsl-region-body">
<fo:inline>
<rx:pdf-form-field-text text="you@example.com"/>
</rx:pdf-form-field>
...

At most one element <rx:pdf-javascript> is allowed, it may not contain nested elements, and it is only allowed inside <fo:root> before any other FO elements.

Starting with version 4.18, XEP additionally provides various Javascript hooks for various PDF objects listed below. Although support for PDF Forms is licensed separately, generic support for Javascript hooks and <rx:pdf-javascript> does not require a special license key.

Table A.2.

attribute example
<fo:root>:
• @js-open,
• @js-willclose
• @js-willprint
• @js-didprint
• @js-willsave
• @js-didsave

These attributes define scripts to be execute by the PDF reader when the respective events happen. They go transparently to <xep:document> and then to Additional Actions dictionary in the PDF document Catalog.

The attributes @js-willsave and @js-didsave have no effect in Acrobat Reader and only work in Acrobat Pro, which can actually save PDF documents.

The attribute @js-open is somewhat special because it shares it's location in PDF Catalog OpenAction key with what comes from rx:initial-destination and <?xep-pdf-initial-zoom?> processing instruction. Only if neither of initial-* are set, @js-open may appear in the output PDF.

<fo:simple-page-master>:
• @js-open
• @js-close
These are hooks for events of a page coming into or out of the view in the PDF reader. They go transparently to <xep:page> and then to Page objects in PDF document for each page created with the page master where the attributes were set.
<rx:pdf-form-field>:
• @js-blur
• @js-focus
• @js-mousedown
• @js-mouseup
• @js-mouseenter
• @js-mouseexit
These are hooks for PDF Form Fields only. They define the code to be executed by the PDF reader when a field loses or receives focus, when a mouse button is pressed or released in the field area, and when the mouse pointer enters or exits the field area, respectively.

#### Multimedia features

Starting with version 4.17, XEP is able to produce PDF documents with multimedia objects.

The multimedia features are only supported in the PDF generator, and only if the PDF_VERSION option is set to 1.5 or higher. XEP supports all media formats recommended in PDF Reference, version 1.5.

Notes on SMIL media support:

1. XEP supports SMIL 2.0 version.

2. Since XEP version 4.18, content-type attribute is required only for SMIL media format.

3. For an SMIL media to be processed, it must have defined internal layout. If layout specified as <topLayout> elements list, to determine the media box processed the first element.

4. SMIL media layout height and width can be expressed in the following units: px, pc, pt, cm, mm, in. Other unit identifiers are not supported..

5. If media object type embedded in SMIL is not supported by XEP, but media embeddidng is forced, it is being treated as plain text.

The new extension element <media-object> is a special inline element for including multimedia into XSL FO. This element exists both in 'rx:' and in 'xep:' namespaces, so media can be defined in XSL FO documents or in XEP Intermediate Format documents.

An <rx:media-object> may be placed in <fo:block> or <fo:inline>.

The source media is specified by the src attribute whose value is a URI. XEP handles HTTP, FTP, data and filesystem resource locators in URIs. An unqualified URI is treated as a path to a file in the local file system; if the path is relative, it is calculated from the location of the source XSL FO document.

Attribute content-type specifies media MIME type.

The attribute embed specifies whether the media should be embedded in a generated document (default value: 'true')

The attribute extraction-policy is a string indicating the circumstances under which it is acceptable to write a temporary file in order to play a media clip (default value: 'tempaccess'). For more details see PDF Reference.

The attribute show-controls specifies whether playing controls should be visible (default value: 'false')

### Note:

For SWF files the value of show-controls attribute is ignored. SWF file itself defines whether playing control should be visible.

The attribute play-mode specifies the play mode for playing movie. Possible values:

• 'once' - play once and stop;

• 'continuously' - play repeatedly from beginning to end until stopped;

• a positive float that specifies the number of times to replay.

Default value is '1.0'

### Note:

If overriden in file, play-mode attribute may not affect the SWF file playing.

The attributevolume specifies audio volume level. Possible values:

• 'silent' - 0% (mute);

• 'x-soft' - 0% (mute);

• 'soft' - 25%;

• 'medium' - 50%;

• 'loud' - 75%;

• 'x-loud' - 100%;

• a positive integer that specifies the desired volume level as a percentage of recorded volume level.

Default value is '100%'

The attributeduration specifies the duration of the movie segment to be played. Possible values:

• 'intrinsic' - the duration is the intrinsic duration of the associated media;

• 'infinity' - the duration is infinity;

• a positive float that specifie the number of seconds in the time span.

Default value is 'intrinsic'

The source poster is specified by the poster attribute whose value is a URI. Attribute poster-content-type specifies poster image MIME type.

The following DTD defines the extension element and attributes.

<!ENTITY % basic-inlines
"...
rx:media-object">

<!ENTITY % media-properties
" embed  ( false | true ) #IMPLIED
| alt CDATA #IMPLIED
| extraction-policy ( tempaccess | tempnever | tempextract | tempalways ) #IMPLIED
| show-controls ( true|false ) #IMPLIED
| play-mode CDATA #IMPLIED
| volume CDATA #IMPLIED
| duration CDATA #IMPLIED
| poster CDATA #IMPLIED
| poster-content-type CDATA #IMPLIED"
>

<!ELEMENT rx:media-object EMPTY>

<!ATTLIST rx:media-object
%media-properties;
id  CDATA  #IMPLIED
content-type  CDATA  #IMPLIED
content-height  CDATA  #IMPLIED
content-width  CDATA  #IMPLIED
src  CDATA  #REQUIRED
scaling  ( uniform | non-uniform | inherit )  #IMPLIED
scaling-method  ( auto | integer-pixels
| resample-any-method | inherit )  #IMPLIED>


For further details on <xep:media-object> see Appendix E.

#### Rich Media

Starting with version 4.19, XEP is able to produce PDF documents with Rich Media Objects. This feature is controlled by a special license key file.

The RMO are only supported in the PDF generator, only if the PDF_VERSION option is set to 1.7 or higher (currently only SWF rich media format is supported). Design and Implementation of Rich Media Objects in XEP are based on PDF Specification version 1.7, Extension Level 3.

The new extension element <rich-media-object> with it's descendants allows the user to produce PDF files with interactive and parameterized Flash objects. This element and it's descendants exist both in 'rx:' and in 'xep:' namespaces.

In XSL FO the element <rx:rich-media-object> behaves the same way as multimedia and images.

The following DTD defines the extension elements and attributes for XSL FO:

<!ELEMENT rx:rich-media-object ((flash-var | rich-media-resource)*)>

<!ATTLIST rich-media-object
id  CDATA  #IMPLIED
content-type  CDATA  #IMPLIED
content-height  CDATA  #IMPLIED
content-width  CDATA  #IMPLIED
name CDATA #REQUIRED
src CDATA #REQUIRED
scaling  ( uniform | non-uniform | inherit )  #IMPLIED
scaling-method  ( auto | integer-pixels
| resample-any-method | inherit )  #IMPLIED>
poster CDATA #IMPLIED
poster-content-type CDATA #IMPLIED
transparency ( true | false ) #IMPLIED
activate-condition (page_visible | page_open
| explicit_activation) #IMPLIED
deactivate-condition (page_invisible | page_close
| explicit_deactivation) #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT rx:flash-var (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST rx:flash-var
name CDATA #REQUIRED
value CDATA #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT rx:rich-media-resource (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST rx:rich-media-resource
name CDATA #REQUIRED
src CDATA #IMPLIED>


The following DTD defines the extension elements and attributes for XEPOUT:

<!ELEMENT rich-media-object (poster? | (flash-var | rich-media-resource)*)>
<!ATTLIST rich-media-object
name CDATA #REQUIRED
src CDATA #REQUIRED
type CDATA #IMPLIED
x-from CDATA #REQUIRED
y-from CDATA #REQUIRED
scale-x CDATA #REQUIRED
scale-y CDATA #REQUIRED
transparency ( true|false ) #IMPLIED
activate-condition (page_visible | page_open
| explicit_activation) #IMPLIED
deactivate-condition (page_invisible | page_close
| explicit_deactivation) #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT poster EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST poster
src CDATA #REQUIRED
type CDATA #IMPLIED
x-from CDATA #REQUIRED
y-from CDATA #REQUIRED
scale-x CDATA #REQUIRED
scale-y CDATA #REQUIRED>

<!ELEMENT flash-var EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST flash-var
name CDATA #REQUIRED
value CDATA #IMPLIED        (Either @value, or @content, not both.
content CDATA #IMPLIED>      @content must contain base64-encoded bytes
of what was inside the element in XSL FO file)

<!ELEMENT rich-media-resource EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST rich-media-resource
name CDATA #REQUIRED
src CDATA #IMPLIED>


The transparency attribute indicates whether the page content is displayed through the transparent areas of the rich media content (where the alpha value is less than 1.0). If true, the rich media artwork is composited over the page content using an alpha channel. If false, the rich media artwork is drawn over an opaque background prior to composition over the page content.

The activate-condition/deactivate-condition attributes specify the animation style when the annotation is activated/deactivated.

The activate-condition attribute can have 3 possible values:

• explicit_activation - the annotation is explicitly activated by a user action;

• page_open - the annotation is activated as soon as the page that contains the annotation receives focus as the current page;

• page_visible - the annotation is activated as soon as any part of the page that contains the annotation becomes visible. One example is in a multiple-page presentation. Only one page is the current page although several are visible.

The deactivate-condition can have 3 possible values:

• explicit_deactivation - the annotation is explicitly deactivated by a user action;

• page_close - the annotation is deactivated as soon as the page that contains the annotation loses focus as the current page;

• page_invisible - the annotation is deactivated as soon as the entire page that contains the annotation is no longer visible.

Here is an example of Rich Media Object:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE root [
<!ENTITY Column3d.xml.content SYSTEM "Column3d.xml">
]>
<fo:root xmlns:fo="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Format"
xmlns:rx="http://www.renderx.com/XSL/Extensions">
<fo:layout-master-set>
<fo:simple-page-master master-name="p">
<fo:region-body region-name="xsl-region-body" margin="1in" />
</fo:simple-page-master>
</fo:layout-master-set>

<fo:page-sequence master-reference="p">
<fo:flow flow-name="xsl-region-body">
This is Column3d.pdf.
It has been made by XEP using Column3d.xml (pointed as DATA)
and Column3D.swf. Both sources are from FusionCharts tutorial.
<fo:block text-align="center" text-align-last="center">
<rx:rich-media-object name="MyColumn3dFlash"
src="url('./Fusion/Column3D.swf')">
<rx:flash-var name="someVar">some content for a var that may or may
not be XML at all</rx:flash-var>
<rx:flash-var name="dataURL" value="resource.column3d.xml"/>
<rx:rich-media-resource name="resource.column3d.xml">
&Column3d.xml.content;
</rx:rich-media-resource>
<rx:rich-media-resource name="another.resource"
src="url('http://test.com/dialog.jpg')"/>
</rx:rich-media-object>
</fo:block>
</fo:block>
</fo:flow>
</fo:page-sequence>
</fo:root>


Column3d.xml:

<chart caption='Weekly Sales Summary'
xAxisName='Week' yAxisName='Sales' numberPrefix=''> <set label='Week 1' value='14400' /> <set label='Week 2' value='19600' /> <set label='Week 3' value='24000' /> <set label='Week 4' value='15700' /> </chart> Column3d.xml is the initial data to be used by the Flash file Column3D.swf. ### Note: The usage of XML file with the help of DTD and entities as shown above is used for convenience, and it is equivalent to plain text insertion of the data into XSL FO document. Sample code in XEPOUT: ... <xep:rich-media-object name="MyColumn3dFlash" src="<abs_url_to_Column3D.swf>" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" x-from="168000" y-from="499550" scale-x="1.0" scale-y="1.0"> <xep:poster src="<DEFAULT_POSTER>" type="image/svg+xml" role="Poster image" x-from="168000" y-from="499550" scale-x="1.0" scale-y="1.0"/> <xep:flash-var name="someVar" content="wC20aSaN...<base64-encoded content of that var>...8N+xweW5zD9"/> <xep:flash-var name="dataURL" value="resource.column3d.xml"/> <xep:rich-media-resource name="resource.column3d.xml" content="wC20aSaN...<base64- encoded Column3d.xml>...8N+xweW5zD9"/> <xep:rich-media-resource name="another.resource" src="url('http://test.com/dialog.jpg')"/> </xep:rich-media-object>  ##### FlashVars Using FlashVars allows to pass data or variables from PDF document to a Flash movie. Variables passed via FlashVars will go into the _root level of the Flash movie when first instantiated. All variables are created before the first frame of the SWF is played. The format of the string is a set of name=value combinations separated by &. The new <rx:flash-var> element presents one of such a name=value pair.The value attribute is optional. It holds a simple string value if present. Otherwise the element's content is used as the value of this Flash variable. FlashVars limitations: • The size limit of a FlashVars file is 64K (more than 65,000 bytes or between 32,500 to 65,000 characters, depending on the encoding). • Only letters, underline, and numbers can be used in the variable names. • A variable name must not start with a number (for example: 1message is an invalid variable name because it starts with a number; whereas message1 is a valid variable name). Flash will certainly reject or get confused if a variable name that starts with a number or other special characters is used - except underlines (ie: _message, and _1message are valid names). • A variable name should not contain any space characters (ie: my message is an invalid name, my_message is a valid name). ##### Rich Media Resources Rich Media Resources are resources used by SWF. They can be .fla files with defined Flash variables inside, XML config, images, etc. The new <rich-media-resource> element holds URI reference to the Rich Media Resource. The src attribute is optional. If it is absent, the element's content is used as the content of the resource in PDF. #### PDF Note Annotations Starting with version 4.19, XEP is able to produce PDF documents with note annotations. The new extension element <pdf-comment> with it's descendants describes a single note annotation. This element and it's descendants exist both in 'rx:' and in 'xep:' namespaces, so one may define comment in XSL FO documents or in XEP Intermediate Format documents. In XSL FO the element <rx:pdf-comment> is allowed as a direct child of <fo:inline>, <fo:block> or <fo:block-container> and does not affect the actual document flow. In XEPOUT the element <xep:pdf-comment> additionally wears mandatory positioning attributes x-from, y-from, x-till, y-till. Positioning is usually calculated by XEP core during the rendering process, but may be altered in XEPOUT by the user. The color attribute is transformed into <xep:color> child element. The following DTD defines the extension elements and attributes. Namespaces are skipped, which means that both 'rx:' and 'xep:' apply. In XEPOUT the comments look pretty much the same, with some differences. <!ENTITY % comments " pdf-sticky-note | pdf-file-attachment"> <!ELEMENT pdf-comment (%comments;)> <!-- just one particular comment! --> <!ATTLIST pdf-comment content CDATA #IMPLIED title CDATA #REQUIRED color CDATA #IMPLIED opacity CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT pdf-sticky-note EMPTY> <!ATTLIST rx:pdf-sticky-note icon-type ( comment | key | note | help | newparagraph | paragraph | insert ) #IMPLIED open ( false | true ) #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT pdf-file-attachment EMPTY> <!ATTLIST pdf-file-attachment src CDATA #REQUIRED filename CDATA #REQUIRED icon-type ( graph | pushpin | paperclip | tag ) #IMPLIED>  opacity attribute value is an positive integer that specifies an opacity level of the icon appearance in the PDF file. Default value of the attribute is '100%' (and 1.0 in XEPOUT). ### Note: The following Annotation Flags are set on the PDF note annotations by XEP: 'Print', 'NoZoom', 'NoRotate'. However, in addition to 'Print' flag setting, user should make settings in Acrobat Reader to print comments. This feature is not available in Adobe Reader 9, so the flag has been ignored by the viewer. ##### PDF/A support Text Annotations (i.e. "sticky notes") are allowed in PDF/A standard. However, opacity property was implemented in PDF 1.4. So, XEP ignores the property, if PDF version < 1.4. FileAttachment Annotations are not allowed in PDF/A standard. In case of PDF/A, XEP ignores this feature. #### Overprint Starting with version 4.19, XEP provides an extension attribute rx:overprint with values "true" and "false" (default). This inheritable attribute controls whether overprining is turned on or off for particular drawing commands in Postscript (true setoverprint) and PDF (/OP true). This attribute is allowed and supported in FO wherever color and background-color attributes are allowed. In XEP Intermediate Format this flag appears as attribute overprint on all <xep:*-color> elements. ## Appendix B. Linguistic Algorithms ## Line-Breaking Algorithm The following rules comprise XEP's line-breaking algorithm: 1. Line-break is permitted if one of the following conditions is fulfilled: • Line-break is forced by the explicit linefeed characters: U+000A, U+000D, U+2028, and U+2029. Note, however, that the default behavior of XEP is to perform linefeed normalization, which treats all linefeed characters like spaces. Therefore, the linefeed characters actually force a line-break only if the linefeed-treatment attribute is set to "preserve." • Line-break is permitted at space characters: U+0009, U+0020, U+2000 - U+200B, and U+3000. 2. Line-break is not allowed in the following cases, unless one of the conditions of rule 1 is fulfilled: • Immediately preceding or following non-breaking spaces (U+00A0) and non-breaking hyphens (U+200C). • Immediately preceding trailing punctuation characters, closing brackets and quotes, small Katakana and Hiragana characters, superscript characters, etc. • Immediately after opening brackets and quotes, Spanish leading punctuation, currency symbols, etc. 3. If the hyphenate attribute is set to "true" and all hyphenation conditions (hyphenation-push-character-count, hyphenation-remain-character-count, etc.) are satisfied, then line-break is permitted after a soft hyphen (U+00AD). A soft hyphen at the end of a line is replaced by the text specified in the hyphenation-character attribute; all other soft hyphens are suppressed. 4. Unless prohibited by the above rules, line-break is permitted before or after CJK ideographic, Katakana, Hiragana, and Hangul characters. 5. In all other cases, line-break is prohibited. The algorithm will be refined in future versions of XEP, when more feedback about non-European scripting systems is received. ## Hyphenation XEP uses Unicode soft hyphen characters (U+00AD) to mark possible hyphenation points. These characters can either be contained in the source XSL-FO document (e.g. from an external hyphenation application), or can be added by XEP automatically before the source is passed to the formatter. The hyphenator implements Liang's algorithm. XEP's distribution includes patterns for the following languages: English (American and British), French, German, Spanish and Russian. All patterns are borrowed from CTAN (the Comprehensive TeX Archive Network, http://www.ctan.org/), with some modifications for non-English patterns. More patterns can be added if necessary. ### Hyphenation Patterns The hyphenator uses TEX format for hyphenation patterns. It recognizes the following sections in the pattern files: • patterns (for hyphenation patterns) • hyphenation (for exceptions) Any other section in the pattern file is ignored. Hexadecimal escape codes (e.g. ^^ae) and control characters (^^A) are supported; they can be used to encode non-ANSI European characters. Additionally, XEP recognizes a set of \rm macros for accented characters: \^a is â (a with circumflex accent), \l is ł (Polish barred l), etc. ## Support for Right-to-Left Writing Systems XEP supports both left-to-right and right-to-left text. To define ordering of charactes within lines and stacking direction of lines into paragraphs, we use the writing-mode attribute. It can be specified on the  <fo:simple-page-master>, <fo:region-*>, <fo:table>, <fo:block-container>, and <fo:inline-container> elements. Its primary values are: • "lr-tb": left-to-right, top-to-bottom. This is the default writing mode in XSL-FO; it is used by the majority of world languages, including English. • "rl-tb": right-to-left, top-to-bottom. This mode is used in Arabic writing system (adopted by many languages of the Middle East), Hebrew, and Syriac alphabets. • "tb-rl": top-to-bottom, right-to-left. This way of writing is widely used for Japanese, but also for Chinese and other languages of East Asia. ### Note: As of version 4.0, XEP supports only horizontal writing modes: "lr-tb" and "rl-tb". The  writing-mode attribute defines every aspect of the document organization: binding edge, column ordering in tables, text alignment in blocks, etc. It also sets the correspondence between relative directions (before – after – start – end) and absolutely-oriented ones (top – bottom – left – right). ### Bidirectionality Bidirectionality is the interleaving of text which is to be displayed in both directions: for example, operating instructions are in Hebrew, but the name of the product appears in the middle of the instructions, in English. In simple situations, the renderer handles the bidirectionality on its own; there are, however, many situations where there may be an ambiguity as to the exact resolution desired. For these situations, XSL defines a special element, <fo:bidi-override> that enables altering the bidirectional behaviour of the whole text or its parts. It has two properties: direction Sets the dominant direction for a span of text. Possible values are: • "ltr" — from left to right • "rtl" - from right to left unicode-bidi Specifies behaviour of a text span with respect to the Unicode bidi algorithm. Possible values are the following: • "normal" — order characters by Unicode bidi. • "embed" — open a new level of embedding. • "bidi-override" — ignore directionality of the text and arrange characters in the order specified by the direction property. ### Glyph Shaping XEP supports contextual selection of Arabic positional glyph variants, known as glyph shaping. Shaping proceeds as follows: each character that belongs to Arabic Unicode range U+0600–U+06FF is replaced by its counterpart in the Arabic Presentation Forms ranges U+FB50–U+FDFF and U+FE70–U+FEFF, in accordance with the Unicode rules for Arabic. Only basic changes are considered: • Substitution of initial, final, and medial forms • Insertion of lam-alef ligatures Shaping occurs before font selection. For the algorithm to work, the following conditions must be met: • Fonts chosen for Arabic text spans shall cover all positional variants for glyphs used (You can specify a list of fonts. Glyphs will be searched in all of them, following the usual rules for processing of multiple font families). • Positional variants are accessible through their Unicode codepoints. This is the case for most TrueType fonts that support Traditional Arabic; however, XEP does not work with Simplified Arabic fonts. ## Appendix C. Supported Fonts ## Supported Fonts This appendix lists font types currently supported in XEP, and describes the details of their use. The overall structure of font configuration is described in the chapter Configuring XEP; here, details specific to particular font formats are described. ### PostScript Type 1 Fonts To use a Type 1 font with XEP, it is necessary to obtain an AFM (Adobe Font Metrics) file for the font, and specify the URL to it in the afm attribute of the <font-data> element. If the font is to be embedded into the resulting PDF or PostScript documents, a font outline file in PFA or PFB format is also needed; its location is specified in the respective attribute of the <font-data> — either pfa or pfb. Example: suppose we have a metrics file foobar.afm and an outline file foobar.pfb. Its descriptor in the configuration file should look like this: <font embed="true" subset="true"> <font-data afm="foobar.afm" pfb="foobar.pfb"/> </font> If your Type 1 font uses non-standard glyph names, you may need an additional step — custom glyph list registration. This is discussed in more detail in the next section. #### PostScript Fonts and Unicode Type 1 font support in XEP is based on direct mapping of Unicode characters to glyph names. Built-in character codes aren't used in the formatting. XEP follows Adobe's guidelines for mapping Unicode values to glyph names, as described in the following document: Unicode and Glyph Names, version 2.3 (http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/opentype/index_glyph.html). By default, Adobe Glyph List, version 2.0 (hereinafter, AGL; http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/en/opentype/glyphlist.txt) is used to determine Unicode positions for Type 1 glyphs; AGL is hard coded inside XEP. If a font includes only glyphs comprised in the AGL and all glyphs are named according to Adobe standards, you need no additional steps to use them in XEP. (This is normally the case with most Latin-based Type 1 fonts). However, some fonts cannot be covered by the AGL: • Some fonts define glyphs outside the scope of AGL — exotic scripts, custom dingbats, etc. • Some others give non-standard names to glyphs, e.g. Cyrillic or Armenian fonts from TeX. With XEP, it is possible to use such fonts, and access characters from them by their regular Unicode values. All you need to do is to write an extension to the Adobe Glyph List, and register in the font descriptor: glyph-list attribute of a <font-data> element which contains a URL to the extension glyph list. Glyph lists are ascribed to fonts individually: different fonts in your system may use different glyph naming systems. The syntax of a custom glyph list is as follows: • Lines starting with '#' are comments. • Empty lines are ignored. • Each non-comment & non-empty line contains information about a single glyph. • Within a line, records are separated by semicolons. • The first record is the Unicode value — 4 hex digits. • The second record is the glyph name as used in the AFM file. • The rest of the line is treated as a comment. ### Note: The syntax for the glyph list follows the structure of the previous version of AGL, Adobe Glyph List 1.2 (http://www.renderx.com/glyphlist-old.txt). Unfortunately, the two versions of AGL are not compatible with each other. Duplicate entries are allowed in glyph lists: you can assign different Unicode values to one and the same glyph, and have more than one glyph point to the same Unicode value. In a custom glyph list, there is no need to cover all symbols present in the font: only non-standard mappings should be included. All glyphs not found in the glyph list are processed according to AGL 2.0 (hard coded into the formatter). Given below is a schematic example of a custom glyph list: # Sample Glyph List 0020;space 0021;exclam;EXCLAMATION MARK … … …  A registration entry for a font with custom glyph mapping looks like this: <font-data afm="foobar.afm" pfa="foobar.pfa" glyph-list="foo.glyphs"/> A sample glyph list IPA.glyphs can be found in the fonts/ subdirectory of the distribution. It maps IPA (International Phonetic Association) symbols from OmegaSerifIPA font (borrowed from Omega TeX distribution) to Unicode IPA range where possible; characters not covered by Unicode are placed into the private-use area (range starting from U+E000). #### Standard Adobe Fonts An important kind of Type1 fonts are Adobe standard font families: Times, Helvetica, Courier, Symbol and ZapfDingbats. They are present in every PDF or PostScript installation, and don't require embedding. The default XEP configuration includes settings for them. All symbols from these fonts are accessed by Unicode, including Symbol and ZapfDingbats fonts. For Symbol, mapping of Unicode to glyph names is contained in the Adobe Glyph List, version 2.0 (http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/en/opentype/glyphlist.txt); for ZapfDingbats, the mapping is taken from a separate document, also available at the Adobe technical support site: http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/en/opentype/zapfdingbats.txt. XEP samples include three files where all glyphs available from standard Adobe fonts are listed, with their Adobe glyph names and Unicode values: • adobe-standard.fo lists all glyphs from Roman Extended character set. • symbol.fo lists all glyphs from Symbol character set. • zapf-dingbats.fo lists all glyphs from Zapf Dingbats character set. ### TrueType Fonts TrueType fonts are supported in XEP, with the following limitations: • These fonts are supported by PDF generator module only. PostScript generator can only use Type 1 and OpenType/CFF fonts (except for CID ones). • XEP can only use Unicode-enabled TrueType fonts, i.e. Those with an internal cmap table for mapping glyph IDs to Unicode. Most TrueType fonts (both for Windows and Mac) now satisfy this condition, but not all. A notable exception is Wingdings font, commonly found on Windows machines. XEP supports both standalone TrueType fonts (normally stored in files with a *.ttf extension) and fonts in TrueType Collection files (they normally have a *.ttc extension). To use a standalone TrueType font with XEP, a URL to its font file should be specified in a ttf attribute to the <font-data> element, like in the example below: <font-data ttf="FOOBAR.TTF"/> To access a font from a TrueType Collection file, a URL to its font file should be specified in a ttc attribute to the <font-data> element. Additionally, it is necessary to specify the subfont number in a subfont attribute, such as in the example below: <font-family name="Gungsuh" embed="true"> <font><font-data ttc="batang.ttc" subfont="3"/></font> </font-family> ### OpenType/CFF Fonts OpenType/CFF fonts fall into two groups, depending on whether the CFF font inside them is CID-based. Their level of support in XEP is different. • Non-CID OpenType fonts are supported by both PDF and PostScript generators (Level 3 only). • CID-based OpenType fonts are supported by PDF generator only. These fonts are mostly used for languages with ideographic scripts, like Chinese, Japanese and Korean. They appear in Asian font packs for Adobe Acrobat; XEP can produce documents that can be viewable by users who have these font packs installed. To use an OpenType font with XEP, an URL to its font file should be specified in an otf attribute to the <font-data> element, such as in the example below: <font-data otf="KozMinPro-Regular-Acro.otf"/> ### Supported AFP Fonts Native AFP fonts are supported in XEP 4.18, with the following limitations: • These fonts are supported by AFP generator module only. • Only raster AFP fonts are supported so far. • Embedding, subsetting and algorithmic slanting of native AFP fonts are not supported. Native AFP Fonts are Non-CID OpenType fonts described in F:OCA specifications. Usually, they are uploadable to AFP printers. In order to retrieve their metrics, the font files must be located via URL, and the file(s) mapped within XEP configuration file. Please refer AFP Fonts section for more details on how to configure XEP to use this kind of fonts. XEP distribution does not include any native AFP fonts. ## Appendix D. Supported Graphic Formats This section contains the following topics: Supported Graphic Formats Bitmap Graphics PNG JPEG GIF TIFF Vector Graphics SVG PDF EPS XEPOUT ## Supported Graphic Formats ### Bitmap Graphics XEP supports the following raster graphics formats: • PNG • JPEG • GIF • TIFF Bitmap graphic that have no built-in resolution or dimension data, default to a resolution of 120 dpi (5 dots of a 600-dpi printer) as prescribed by the CSS2 Spec. This is always the case for GIF images, but may also occur with other image types. The XSL Recommendation suggests using 0.28 mm as a pixel size in such cases, which corresponds to 90 dpi resolution. A smaller pixel size gives better print results because the proportion between pixel size and page width is similar to that of a computer screen. With lower resolutions, often the large GIF/JPEG images fit onto a screen but not into the printable area on the page. For interoperability with other XSL-FO implementations, it is advisable to specify image size explicitly in XSL-FO code. #### PNG XEP recognizes all types of PNG images described in the PNG specification, and reproduces them with the following limitations: • 16-bit component colors are trimmed down to 8-bit. Single-color transparency and alpha channel are supported in PDF output only. For indexed-color images with alpha, the first completely transparent color in the palette is used. ### Note: Combining single-color transparency with 16-bit color is not safe in XEP because of color depth reduction and consequent merging of adjacent colors. If the image has an explicit gamma, it is corrected to the sRGB value of 2.2. #### JPEG Grayscale, RGB, and CMYK JPEGs are supported. Data stream is copied directly from the image file to the resultant PDF or PostScript, so there is no additional loss of quality. For CMYK JPEGs, XEP analyzes the contents of APP14 marker. If the marker indicates that the image is created by Adobe, color polarity is inverted: 0 means "full colorant". Otherwise, standard CMYK conventions apply: 0 is treated as "no colorant". #### GIF XEP supports both interlaced and non-interlaced GIF images and includes implementation of LZW algorithm. GIF transparency is supported in PDF output. #### TIFF XEP supports the following principal TIFF flavors: • File organization - strip-based or tiled • Color model - monochrome, grayscale, RGB or CMYK • Compression type - uncompressed, CCITT Fax (monochrome images only), PackBits or LZW TIFF images with separate color planes (PlanarConfiguration=2) and/or associated alpha channel (ExtraSamples=1) are not supported. ### Vector Graphics XEP supports the following vector graphics formats: • SVG • PDF (PDF generator only) • EPS (PostScript generator only) • XEPOUT (All generators except AFP, XPS and XHTML) #### SVG XEP supports a subset of Scalable Vector Graphics, version 1.1. SVG images can be either referenced as external files (in src and background-image attributes) or directly embedded into the XSL-FO flow through <fo:instream-foreign-object> wrapper. XEP implements the following SVG elements: • structure elements - <svg>, <g>, <defs>, <use>, <symbol>, <image> • styling - <style> • shapes - <rect>, <circle>, <ellipse>, <polygon>, <polyline>, <path> • basic clipping - <clipPath> (see limitations below) • text - <text>, <tspan>, <tref> • conditional processing - <switch> • paint servers - <linearGradient>, <radialGradient>, <pattern> The following SVG properties are supported: • baseline-shift • clip-path (see below for limitations on clipping support) • color • fill • fill-opacity • fill-rule • font • font-family • font-size • font-stretch • font-style • font-weight • gradientTransform • gradientUnits • letter-spacing • marker • marker-end • marker-start • marker-mid • opacity • patternContentUnits • patternTransform • patternUnits • stroke • stroke-width • stroke-linecap • stroke-linejoin • stroke-miterlimit • stroke-dasharray • stroke-dashoffset • stroke-opacity • text-anchor • transform • visibility • word-spacing • xml:base • xml:space Notes on SVG support in XEP: 1. Color treatment for SVG follows the same rules as for XSL-FO. In particular, #CMYK, #Grayscale, #SpotColor and #Registration pseudo profile names can be used in icc-color() function to produce CMYK, grayscale, spot, or registration colors. 2. For an SVG image to be processed by XEP, it must have an intrinsic size. If height or width are expressed in percents, a viewBox attribute must be present: the intrinsic size is determined by the viewBox, assuming 1 user space unit = 1 pixel. 3. Animation-related elements and attributes are ignored. All objects are drawn at their specified static positions; no attempt is made to reconstruct the initial state of an animated picture. 4. The clip-path attribute is not supported on the elements inside <clipPath> element and on the <clipPath> element itself. 5. Remote references to clipPath and marker elements are unsupported: only the fragment identifier is used to retrieve them. (Remote links in use elements are supported). 6. Character-by-character placement and rotation in text elements are not supported. If an array is used in x, y, dx, dy, or rotate attributes of <text> or <tspan> element, only the first number is considered. 7. Bidi reordering and Arabic glyph shaping does not work in SVG text. 8. xml:base attribute works only when resolving relative URLs for external images via <image> element. It is ignored in <use>, <tref> and similar elements. 9. XEP supports opacity, fill-opacity, and stroke-opacity attributes. Because of the output format limitations, these features are only supported in the PDF generator, and only if the PDF version is set to 1.4 or higher. 10. XEP supports SVG styling via embedded CSS stylesheets (<style> element, style and class attributes). CSS support is limited to Level 1: only ancestor, class, and ID selectors are recognized. Pseudo classes and pseudo elements are not supported. #### PDF PDF images are supported in PDF generator only. XEP is capable to embed an arbitrary page of a PDF document as a vector image. All related resources (fonts, images, color profiles) are transferred to the output file. Annotations (text notes, hyperlinks, etc) are dropped. The following XSL-FO code demonstrates this feature: <fo:external-graphic src="url(background.pdf)" rx:pdf-page="5"/> Here, the optional rx:pdf-page attribute defines the page to use. The attribute value must evaluate to a positive integer value. Default: 1 (the first page in the document). If the value is not parsed properly, or if a page number specified is greater than the total number of pages in the PDF document, the warning is issued and the selected page reverted to default value. Any unencrypted PDF document which conforms to PDF 1.3 can be embedded as an image, provided that it does not mix LZW and non-LZW compression for parts of the same content stream.[1] #### EPS EPS images are supported in PostScript generator only. In the PDF generation module, they are replaced by a bitmap preview image (EPSI or TIFF) if available; otherwise, the corresponding area is left blank. #### XEPOUT XEPOUT images are supported in all generators except AFP. The MIME type used for XEPOUT images is application/xepout. XEP embeds the first page of a XEPOUT (XEP Intermediate Output Format) document as a vector image. All elements are transferred to the output file except: <xep:target>, <xep:internal-link>, <xep:internal-bookmark>, <xep:external-bookmark>, <xep:external-link> (supported in PS generator only). [1] This possibility is purely theoretical: chances that an application uses different compression methods for parts of the same stream are virtually zero. ## Appendix E. XEP Intermediate Output Format Specification This section contains the following topics: XEP Intermediate Output Format Specification ## XEP Intermediate Output Format Specification This section describes the XEP intermediate output format — an XML based representation of the layout that is passed from the generator to the final output generators (PDF, PostScript, etc). All elements reside in a separate namespace, http://www.renderx.com/XEP/xep (omitted from the description for brevity). All lengths are measured in units of 0.001 pt (1/72,000 inch), and expressed as integers. The format is represented by the following DTD fragment: <!ENTITY % drawables " rotate | translate | word-spacing | letter-spacing | font-stretch | font | text | line | image | rgb-color | cmyk-color | spot-color | registration-color | rectangle | clip | polygon | target | internal-link | external-link | internal-bookmark | external-bookmark | page-number | media-object"> <!ENTITY % rx-accessibility-properties " xpath CDATA #IMPLIED pdf-structure-tag CDATA #IMPLIED pdf-artifact-type CDATA #IMPLIED pdf-artifact-subtype CDATA #IMPLIED alt-description CDATA #IMPLIED actual-text CDATA #IMPLIED abbreviation CDATA #IMPLIED"> <!ENTITY % pages " page | insert-document"> <!ELEMENT document (pages+)> <!ATTLIST document creator CDATA #REQUIRED initial-destination CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT page (%drawables;)*> <!ATTLIST page width CDATA #REQUIRED height CDATA #REQUIRED page-number CDATA #REQUIRED page-id CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT insert-document EMPTY> <!ATTLIST insert-document src CDATA #REQUIRED document-content-type CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT rotate EMPTY> <!ATTLIST rotate phi CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT translate EMPTY> <!ATTLIST translate x CDATA #REQUIRED y CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT word-spacing EMPTY> <!ATTLIST word-spacing value CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT letter-spacing EMPTY> <!ATTLIST letter-spacing value CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT font-stretch EMPTY> <!ATTLIST font-stretch value CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT font EMPTY> <!ATTLIST font family CDATA #REQUIRED weight CDATA #REQUIRED style CDATA #REQUIRED variant CDATA #REQUIRED size CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT text (line*)> <!ATTLIST text x CDATA #REQUIRED y CDATA #REQUIRED value CDATA #REQUIRED width CDATA #REQUIRED %rx-accessibility-properties;> <!ELEMENT page-number (line*)> <!ATTLIST page-number x CDATA #REQUIRED y CDATA #REQUIRED value CDATA #REQUIRED width CDATA #REQUIRED %rx-accessibility-properties;> <!ELEMENT line EMPTY> <!ATTLIST line x-from CDATA #REQUIRED y-from CDATA #REQUIRED x-till CDATA #REQUIRED y-till CDATA #REQUIRED thickness CDATA #REQUIRED style CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT image EMPTY> <!ATTLIST image src CDATA #REQUIRED base CDATA #IMPLIED type CDATA #REQUIRED x-from CDATA #REQUIRED y-from CDATA #REQUIRED scale-x CDATA #REQUIRED scale-y CDATA #REQUIRED %rx-accessibility-properties;> <!ELEMENT gray-color EMPTY> <!ATTLIST gray-color gray CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT rgb-color EMPTY> <!ATTLIST rgb-color red CDATA #REQUIRED green CDATA #REQUIRED blue CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT cmyk-color EMPTY> <!ATTLIST cmyk-color cyan CDATA #REQUIRED magenta CDATA #REQUIRED yellow CDATA #REQUIRED black CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT spot-color EMPTY> <!ATTLIST spot-color colorant CDATA #REQUIRED tint CDATA #REQUIRED alt-gray CDATA #IMPLIED alt-red CDATA #IMPLIED alt-green CDATA #IMPLIED alt-blue CDATA #IMPLIED alt-cyan CDATA #IMPLIED alt-magenta CDATA #IMPLIED alt-yellow CDATA #IMPLIED alt-black CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT registration-color EMPTY> <!ATTLIST registration-color tint CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT rectangle EMPTY> <!ATTLIST rectangle x-from CDATA #REQUIRED y-from CDATA #REQUIRED x-till CDATA #REQUIRED y-till CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT clip (%drawables;)*> <!ATTLIST clip x-from CDATA #REQUIRED y-from CDATA #REQUIRED x-till CDATA #REQUIRED y-till CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT polygon (point,point+)> <!ATTLIST polygon x-from CDATA #REQUIRED y-from CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT point EMPTY> <!ATTLIST point x-till CDATA #REQUIRED y-till CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT target EMPTY> <!ATTLIST target name CDATA #REQUIRED x CDATA #REQUIRED y CDATA #REQUIRED %rx-accessibility-properties;> <!ELEMENT internal-link EMPTY> <!ATTLIST internal-link destination-id CDATA #REQUIRED destination CDATA #REQUIRED destination-x CDATA #REQUIRED destination-y CDATA #REQUIRED %rx-accessibility-properties;> <!ELEMENT external-link EMPTY> <!ATTLIST external-link destination CDATA #REQUIRED show-destination (new | replace) #REQUIRED %rx-accessibility-properties;> <!ELEMENT internal-bookmark (grey-color?, rgb-color?, cmyk-color?)> <!ATTLIST internal-bookmark label CDATA #REQUIRED id CDATA #REQUIRED parent-id CDATA #REQUIRED destination-id CDATA #REQUIRED destination CDATA #REQUIRED destination-x CDATA #REQUIRED destination-y CDATA #REQUIRED collapse-subtree (true | false) #REQUIRED font-style CDATA #IMPLIED font-weight CDATA #IMPLIED %rx-accessibility-properties;> <!ELEMENT external-bookmark (grey-color?, rgb-color?, cmyk-color?)> <!ATTLIST external-bookmark label CDATA #REQUIRED id CDATA #REQUIRED parent-id CDATA #REQUIRED destination CDATA #REQUIRED collapse-subtree (true | false) #REQUIRED show-destination (new | replace) #REQUIRED font-style CDATA #IMPLIED font-weight CDATA #IMPLIED %rx-accessibility-properties;> <!ELEMENT media-object (poster?)> <!ATTLIST media-object src CDATA #REQUIRED base CDATA #IMPLIED type CDATA #REQUIRED x-from CDATA #REQUIRED y-from CDATA #REQUIRED scale-x CDATA #REQUIRED scale-y CDATA #REQUIRED embed ( false | true ) #IMPLIED extraction-policy ( tempaccess | tempnever | tempextract | tempalways ) #IMPLIED alt CDATA #IMPLIED show-controls ( true|false ) #IMPLIED play-mode CDATA #IMPLIED volume CDATA #IMPLIED duration CDATA #IMPLIED %rx-accessibility-properties;> <!ELEMENT poster EMPTY> <!ATTLIST poster src CDATA #REQUIRED type CDATA #REQUIRED  The following table provides a detailed description of the output elements: Table E.1. Output Elements Element Description Attributes <document> The root element. At its beginning and at its end, initialization and finalization are usually performed. • creator - Information about the application that created the document. • initial-destination (optional) - The part of the document that is moved into focus when the document is first opened. • There are several other attributes (such as author or title) that transfer unchanged from <rx:meta-field> extension formatting objects (if present) in the source document. Their use is implementation-dependent; for example, PDF generator uses them to fill the fields of the Info object. <page> Wraps a single page of the document. There is one <page> element for each page in the document. • height - Height of the page • width - Width of the page • page-id - Page number label • page-number - Page number as an ordinal <rotate> Rotates the coordinate system. • phi - Rotation angle, in degrees. May take values in multiples of 90: 0, 90, 180, 270 degrees. <translate> Shifts the origin of the coordinate system. • x - Horizontal shift distance • y - Vertical shift distance <word-spacing> Sets word spacing (additional spacing between words). • value - The value of word spacing <letter-spacing> Sets letter spacing (additional spacing between non-space characters). • value - The value of letter spacing <font-stretch> Sets font-stretch factor. • value - The value of font-stretch factor <font> Changes the current font. • family - Font family • weight - Font weight (100 to 900) • style - Font style (normal, italic, oblique, or backslant) • variant - Font variant (normal or small-caps) • size - Font size <text> Prints a character string. • x - Horizontal position of the initial point on the baseline. • y - Vertical position of the initial point on the baseline. • value - The text string to print. • width - Text width. <line> Draws a line. • x-from - Horizontal position of initial point. • y-from - Vertical position of initial point. • x-till - Horizontal position of final point. • y-till - Vertical position of final point. • thickness - The thickness of the line. • style - The style of the line. <image> Embeds an external image. • src - The source URL of the image. • base - The base directory to resolve hrefs in the image. • type - The image MIME type. • x-from - Horizontal position of the lower left corner of the image. • y-from - Vertical position of the lower left corner of the image. • scale-x - Horizontal scaling factor. • scale-y - Vertical scaling factor. • role - Alternate description for accessible PDFs. <gray-color> Sets the current color for stroking and filling. The color is chosen in a grayscale color space. • gray - Gray color, value: 0 to 1 <rgb-color> Sets the current color for stroking and filling. The color is chosen in an RGB color space (additive). • red - Red color, value: 0 to 1 • green - Green color, value: 0 to 1 • blue - Blue color, value: 0 to 1 <cmyk-color> Sets the current color for stroking and filling. The color is chosen in CMYK color space (subtractive). • cyan - Cyan color, value: 0 to 1 • magenta - Magenta color, value: 0 to 1 • yellow - Yellow color, value: 0 to 1 • black - Black color, value: 0 to 1 <spot-color> Sets the current color for stroking and filling. The color is chosen in a spot color space (subtractive). • colorant - Colorant name • tint - Color intensity, value: 0 to1 • alt-gray - Alternative gray color, value: 0 to 1 • alt-red - Alternative red color, value: 0 to 1 • alt-green - Alternative green color, value: 0 to 1 • alt-blue - Alternative blue color, value: 0 to 1 • alt-cyan - Alternative cyan color, value: 0 to 1 • alt-magenta - Alternative magenta color, value: 0 to 1 • alt-yellow - Alternative yellow color, value: 0 to 1 • alt-black - Alternative black color, value: 0 to 1 To describe an alternate color, one of the following attribute sets must be present: • alt-gray — The default color is grayscale. • alt-red, alt-green, alt-blue — The default color is RGB. • alt-cyan, alt-magenta, alt-yellow, alt-black — The default color is CMYK. <registration-color> Sets the current color for stroking and filling. The color is chosen in registration color space (subtractive): it appears on all separations in the document. • tint - Color intensity, value: 0 to 1 <rectangle> Draws a filled rectangle. • x-from - The horizontal position of the lower left corner. • y-from - The vertical position of the lower left corner. • x-till - The horizontal position of the upper right corner. • y-till - The vertical position of the upper right corner. <clip> Sets the clipping area. • x-from - The horizontal position of the lower left corner. • y-from - The vertical position of the lower left corner. • x-till - The horizontal position of the upper right corner. • y-till - The vertical position of the upper right corner. <polygon> Draws a filled polygon. All verticals but the first one are specified in the contained <point> elements. • x-from - The horizontal position of the first vertex. • y-from - The vertical position of the first vertex. <point> Adds a vertex to a polygon. • x-till - The horizontal position. • y-till - The vertical position. <target> Sets the endpoint for an internal destination. • name - Internal destination name (id of the element that created the target). • x - Horizontal position. • y - Vertical position. <internal-link> Specifies an internal link destination. • destination-id - Name of the target endpoint. It should match the name attribute of a <target> element somewhere in the document. • destination - The page number to point the link to. • x-destination - Horizontal position of the destination point. • y-destination - Vertical position of the destination point. <external-link> Specifies an external link destination. • destination - a URL • show-destination - Controls whether to create a new window when jumping to the link target. <internal-bookmark> Specifies an internal bookmark destination. • label - Bookmark text. • id - Bookmark ID - a positive integer. • parent-id - ID of the parent bookmark, or 0 if the bookmark is a top-level element. • destination-id - Name of the target endpoint. It should match the name attribute of a <target> element somewhere in the document. • destination - Page number to point the link to. • x-destination - Horizontal position of the destination point. • y-destination - Vertical position of the destination point. • collapse-subtree - Initial state (collapsed or expanded). • font-weight - Bookmarks font weight (100 to 900) • font-style - Bookmarks font style (normal, italic) <external-bookmark> Specifies an external bookmark destination. • label - Bookmark text. • id - Bookmark ID - a positive integer. • parent-id - ID of the parent bookmark, or 0 if the bookmark is a top-level element. • destination - A URL. • collapse-subtree - Initial state (collapsed or expanded). • show-destination - Controls whether to create a new window when jumping to the link target. • font-weight - Bookmarks font weight (100 to 900) • font-style - Bookmarks font style (normal, italic) <media-object> Places multimedia. • src - The source URL of the media. • base - The base directory to resolve hrefs in the media. • type - The media MIME type. • x-from - Horizontal position of the lower left corner of the media. • y-from - Vertical position of the lower left corner of the media. • scale-x - Horizontal scaling factor. • scale-y - Vertical scaling factor. • embed - Specifies whether to embed media data. • extraction-policy - Media extraction policy (tempaccess, tempnever, tempextract, tepmalways). • alt - Alternate description for accessible PDFs. • show-controls - Specifies whether to show media playing controls. • play-mode (optional) - The play mode for playing the movie. Value is positive float - the number of times to replay (0.0="continuously"). The default value is 1.0. • volume (optional) - Specifies audio volume level, value: 0 to 1. The default value is 1.0 and means 100% of volume level. • duration (optional) - Specifies duration of the movie segment to be played. May take the following values: intrinsic, infinity or an positive float - the number of seconds in the time span. The default value is intrinsic <poster> Embeds an external image to show, when not playing media. • src - The source URL of the poster image. • type - The poster image MIME type. <> See above for applicable elements. • xpath - Specifies an xpath in the XPath notation, the RenderX internal attribute. • pdf-structure-tag - Overrides a structure tag name for a given element. • pdf-artifact-type - Specifies a type for a PDF artifact. • pdf-artifact-subtype - Specifies a subtype for a PDF artifact. • alt-description - Specifies an alternative description for accessible PDFs. • actual-text - Specifies a replacement text for accessible PDFs. • abbreviation - Specifies an abbreviation or acronym for accessible PDFs. Processing instructions may appear in the output. They are taken from the source file and passed straight to the generator with no modification. Processing instructions placement meets the following conditions: • Instructions placed before <fo:root> element in the source file are reproduced at the very top, before the root <document> element. • Instructions placed inside an <fo:simple-page-master> element are reproduced on each page generated using that master, immediately after the opening tag of the <page> element. All other processing instructions may vanish during formatting. Except for those specified above, ordering of instructions is not preserved. ## Appendix F. Accessibility Support in XEP ## Overview This section contains the following topics: • Accessibility Support in XEP • Tagged PDF • RenderX XEP rolemap.xml • XSL-FO Extensions • PDF Structure Tag • PDF Artifact Type and Subtype • Alternate Description • Actual Text • Abbreviations • Tables • Hints and Tips • Using rolemap.xml ## Accessibility Support in XEP XEP can create accessible PDF documents that are in compliance with Section 508 Standards (http://www.section508.gov) This feature is controlled by the ENABLE_ACCESSIBILITY core option in the configuration file that ships with XEP named xep.xml. ### Note: Accessibility support is applied to PDF documents only. The major requirements for accessible PDF documents are the following: • Logical reading order • Alternate text descriptions for images • Document language An accessible PDF document should include the document's default language which applies to all text in a PDF document. A document's default language should be specified on fo:root element using xml:lang attribute. You can change a language on descendant elements by overriding the document's language. ## Tagged PDF ### Note: The syntax for the document's default language is the same as for the xml:lang attribute. XEP automatically creates document's logical structure by generating a tagged PDF. XEP creates a tagged PDF with a logical structure derived from the structure of the input XSL-FO document. ### Note: By default, Adobe Acrobat reads a tagged PDF according to its logical structure, which coincides with the order of the input XSL-FO document. To change the reading order to be in accordance with a visual content, choose the 'Left-to-right, top-to-bottom reading order' from the 'Reading order' combo box and select the 'Override the reading order in tagged documents' check box in the 'Edit->Preferences->Reading' dialog box. All the elements of the input source will generate a structure item of one of the standard types in the resulting tagged PDF. These structure items can be seen in the file rolemap.xml at the bottom of this Appendix, which is also described more thoroughly in the next section. In accessible PDF documents we handle proper pronunciation of terms like "RenderX" and "508" with some additional "Span" elements which have a minimal hierarchy. ### Note: Adobe Acrobat's 'Accessibility check' plug-in fails if some table cells do not have a table row as the parent. Make sure that all table cells in your XSL-FO file are within table rows. ## RenderX XEP rolemap.xml Within our software, there is a separate, customizable file called rolemap.xml. rolemap.xml provides two different functions. It allows the user to: 1. Map common XSL-FO structures to different PDF tags. Simple examples would be an fo:root becomes a "Document" or an fo:block becomes a "P". The rolemap.xml allows the user to define these for the output. 2. Define structures that are excluded from the tagging. This is a very important feature for compliance. Using the rolemap.xml, the user can specify XSL-FO structures to exclude from the tagging of the output. These would be common XSL-FO structures that really do not contribute to the structure but are in place because of the XSL-FO specification. Examples would be fo:flow and fo:static-content tags. This greatly simplifies the structure of the tagged PDF per the requirements of Section 508. ### XSL-FO Extensions For those capabilities required to meet Section 508 requirements that are outside XSL-FO or cannot be interpreted through the rolemap.xml, RenderX implemented extensions in XSL-FO so that the user can produce fully compliant tagged PDF files. These extensions include PDF Structure Tag, PDF Artifact Type and Subtype, Alternate Description, Actual Text and Abbreviations. ### PDF Structure Tag RenderX implemented an extension attribute rx:pdf-structure-tag that is allowed at the lowest level where content is formatted to output. This attribute allows the user to spot remap some piece of content to the proper (intended) PDF tag, that is, it sets the name tag ('tag'/'tag mapping') of the given structural element in the output document. This same extension attribute also allows the user to mark content as a PDF artifact. By using the special value for rx:pdf-structure-tag of "Artifact", the user can control information which is not intended to be included in the tag structure or reading of a document when using read out loud in Acrobat/JAWS. The rx:pdf-structure-tag attribute can also be set to either "TH"/ "TR", these values are for table header cells. "TH"/ "TR" marks these cells as 'column'/'row' respectively (in the table properties for accessible documents). The most common use is to map an fo:block to tagged PDF headings like "H1" to "H6". This is required because there is no direct equivalent in XSL-FO, all of these are merely fo:block elements. There is no way to truly understand which fo:block is an "H1" or an "H3" or a "P". Now, you can simply mark an fo:block with rx:pdf-structure-tag and set the value to your intended PDF tag like "H1". The valid values for the rx:pdf-structure-tag attribute are "H1", "H2", "H3", "H4", "H5", "H6", "P" , "TH", "TR" or "Artifact". The Syntax for the rx:pdf-structure-tag attribute is: <fo:block rx:pdf-structure-tag="H1">This is block tagged with Heading 1</fo:block>  ### PDF Artifact Type and Subtype RenderX has implemented two additional attributes that apply only to something classified as a PDF artifact. These two extensions, rx:pdf-artifact-type and rx:pdf-artifact-subtype allow the user to further classify artifacts. It should be noted that these are optional according to the PDF specification. The valid values for the type of an artifact are "Pagination", "Page" or "Layout". "Pagination" is used for artifacts that are the direct result of the formatter's pagination of the document and they should (must) not be included in the PDF tag structure or reading. Running and headers and footers are force marked with rx:pdf-structure-tag of "Artifact" and rx:pdf-artifact-type of "Pagination" during output of the tagged PDF. "Page" artifacts are normally used for something on a page like colored boxes and "Layout" artifacts are used for things like table borders. If the rx:pdf-artifact-type is "Pagination", then the user can further classify a subtype. The valid values for rx:pdf-artifact-subtype are "Header", "Footer" or "Watermark". The syntax of the rx:pdf-artifact-type is: <fo:block rx:pdf-structure-tag="Artifact" rx:pdf-artifact-type="Layout"> 1. </fo:block>  Or when Artifact Type and Subtype are used together: <fo:block rx:pdf-structure-tag="Artifact" rx:pdf-artifact-type="Pagination" rx:pdf-artifact-subtype="Watermark"> mark </fo:block>  ### Alternate Description Normally used with images, the extension rx:alt-description allows you to assign alternate text to something that is not normally read out loud, like an image. When the screen reader encounters the image using this extension the alternate description is read out loud to the user. The syntax of the "rx:alt-description" is: <fo:external-graphic src="url('tags.png')" rx:alt-description="This is an image showing the tagging structure of this document." />  When the example fo:external-graphic code above runs, the PDF document would show the image above and the screen reader would read "This is an image showing the tagging structure of this document." in lieu of the image. ### Actual Text The extension rx:actual-text allows the user to change what is read for some text content that is displayed in the PDF. This is most commonly used to read numbers in a special way, overriding the behavior of some screen readers from assuming a string of things is a number. Since this can be misinterpreted, it is best to override what is read to the user. The syntax of the rx:actual-text attribute is shown in the example below: <fo:inline rx:actual-text="5,O,8">508</fo:inline>  The following shows two ways of formatting some numbers that appear exactly the same in context of the PDF. If you allow a screen reader to read them out loud, you will see the difference: • No actual text: 12345678910 • With actual text: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10. ### Note: The example with no actual text will attempt to read as a number. You would hear twelve billion, three hundred forty five million, six hundred seventy eight thousand nine hundred ten. The example with actual text is formatted with rx:actual-text = "1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10." and would be read exactly like it is intended ... one, two, three, ... Actual text is used throughout this document within content that is being read to clarify how it should be read, like for the terms Section 508 and RenderX. ### Abbreviations The extension rx:abbreviation allows you to mark content that is an abbreviation with an appropriate text to be read out loud. The syntax of this is: <fo:inline rx:abbreviation="United States Health and Human Services">US H&HS</fo:inline>  Which will produce text - US H&HS - when rendered to PDF with XEP and the screen reader would read it as "United States Health and Human Services". ### Tables RenderX internally already understands the content with the "table-header" XSL FO tag should be marked as "TH" in the tagged PDF result. The user does not need to do anything special except to use "table-header" structure in their XSL FO. The combined functionality of the rolemap.xml and XSL-FO extensions allows the user to mark up tables as prescribed by Section 508. In XSL-FO, there is no mechanism for marking table headers that are in a column. However, the user can in HTML and the Section 508 specification allows for this. The user can use "rx:pdf-structure-tag" to override content in a column's cell to accomplish just this. The code below shows an example table that exhibits both the rolemap which is mapping elements within this table header rows to be classified as "TH" and also shows that "rx:pdf-structure-tag" can be used to override the content in the first column of cells to map them also as row-based table headers. This is an essential requirement of Section 508 compliance. <fo:table text-align="center" border="1pt solid black" space-before="6pt"> <fo:table-header font-weight="bold"> <fo:table-row> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block margin="2pt">Headings</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block margin="2pt">Column Header 1</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block margin="2pt">Column Header 2</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block margin="2pt">Column Header 3</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block margin="2pt">Column Header 4</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block margin="2pt">Column Header 5</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> </fo:table-row> </fo:table-header> <fo:table-body> <fo:table-row> <fo:table-cell font-weight="bold"> <fo:block rx:pdf-structure-tag="TH" margin-left="2pt">Row Header 1</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> </fo:table-row> <fo:table-row> <fo:table-cell font-weight="bold"> <fo:block rx:pdf-structure-tag="TH" margin-left="2pt">Row Header 2</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> </fo:table-row> <fo:table-row> <fo:table-cell font-weight="bold"> <fo:block rx:pdf-structure-tag="TH" margin-left="2pt">Row Header 3</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> <fo:table-cell> <fo:block>Cell</fo:block> </fo:table-cell> </fo:table-row> </fo:table-body> </fo:table>  In XSL-FO, there is no mechanism for referring to data table cells in header table cells. The user can use "rx:header-idref" to refer header table cells by their id (a common 'id-refid' mechanism), which allows for better control of reading order. ## Hints and Tips There are a few other things to consider in the setup of Render X XEP software for proper processing of Section 508 compliant documents. First, you should try to use the base 14 fonts and not use custom fonts. Because of the nature of custom font processing and requirements special spacing between words, many custom fonts will cause document sizes to increase considerably over using built-in fonts (Helvetica, Times, Courier). Setting KERN as "false" in the setup file should turn off font kerning. Font kerning causes many fragments of text in the output PDF, as they must all be placed individually to account for the kerning. You should avoid the use of nested fo:block elements as they are really unnecessary. This by nature would lead to nested "P" elements in the tagged PDF. While not a violation, it can certainly be avoided by structuring the input FO without nested "fo:block" elements. ## Using rolemap.xml The user can set tag mapping on the document level (document-level; unlike @rx:pdf-structure-tag , which is element-level). Using structure-elements in rolemap.xml - just change @role-mapping for corresponding element. The user also can exclude or 'roll up' any element from the PDF 'structure' ('tagged structure') by commenting out the corresponding structure-elements element in rolemap.xml The <structure-elements standard="true"> section and aliases (the 'structure-alias' elements) in rolemap.xml are mainly for compatibility with older versions of role mapping in XEP. They should not be touched! Below is the code from the current rolemap.xml file in full that ships with RenderX XEP: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <role-map xmlns="http://www.renderx.com/XEP/config"> <!-- ======================================================= --> <!-- PDF Structure Types --> <!-- ======================================================= --> <!-- Maps input XSL-FO elements to the PDF structure types --> <structure-elements> <structure-element name="root" role-mapping="Root"/> <structure-element name="page-sequence" role-mapping="PageSequence"/> <structure-element name="block" role-mapping="Block"/> <structure-element name="leader" role-mapping="Leader"/> <structure-element name="page-number" role-mapping="PageNumber"/> <structure-element name="page-number-citation" role-mapping="PageNumberCitation"/> <structure-element name="page-number-citation-last" role-mapping="PageNumberCitationLast"/> <structure-element name="external-graphic" role-mapping="ExternalGraphic"/> <structure-element name="instream-foreign-object" role-mapping="InstreamForeignObject"/> <structure-element name="basic-link" role-mapping="BasicLink"/> <structure-element name="footnote" role-mapping="Footnote"/> <structure-element name="footnote-label" role-mapping="FootnoteLabel"/> <structure-element name="footnote-body" role-mapping="FootnoteBody"/> <structure-element name="list-block" role-mapping="ListBlock"/> <structure-element name="list-item" role-mapping="ListItem"/> <structure-element name="list-item-label" role-mapping="ListItemLabel"/> <structure-element name="list-item-body" role-mapping="ListItemBody"/> <structure-element name="table" role-mapping="Table"/> <structure-element name="table-row" role-mapping="TableRow"/> <structure-element name="header-table-cell" role-mapping="HeaderTableCell"/> <structure-element name="body-table-cell" role-mapping="BodyTableCell"/> <structure-element name="footer-table-cell" role-mapping="FooterTableCell"/> <structure-element name="flow" role-mapping="Flow"/> <structure-element name="static-content" role-mapping="StaticContent"/> <structure-element name="flow-section" role-mapping="FlowSection"/> <structure-element name="block-container" role-mapping="BlockContainer"/> <structure-element name="inline" role-mapping="Inline"/> <structure-element name="wrapper" role-mapping="Wrapper"/> <structure-element name="table-header" role-mapping="TableHeader"/> <structure-element name="table-body" role-mapping="TableBody"/> <structure-element name="table-footer" role-mapping="TableFooter"/> <structure-element name="ruler" role-mapping="Ruler"/> </structure-elements> <!-- Standard structure types --> <structure-elements standard="true"> <!-- Grouping elements --> <structure-element name="Document" /> <structure-element name="Part" /> <structure-element name="Art" /> <structure-element name="Div" /> <structure-element name="Sect" /> <structure-element name="BlockQuote" /> <structure-element name="Caption" /> <structure-element name="TOC" /> <structure-element name="TOCI" /> <structure-element name="Index" /> <structure-element name="NonStruct" /> <structure-element name="Private" /> <!-- Paragraphlike elements --> <structure-element name="P" /> <structure-element name="H" /> <structure-element name="H1" /> <structure-element name="H2" /> <structure-element name="H3" /> <structure-element name="H4" /> <structure-element name="H5" /> <structure-element name="H6" /> <!-- List elements --> <structure-element name="L" /> <structure-element name="LI" /> <structure-element name="Lbl" /> <structure-element name="LBody" /> <!-- Table elements --> <structure-element name="Table" /> <structure-element name="TR" /> <structure-element name="TH" /> <structure-element name="TD" /> <structure-element name="THead" /> <structure-element name="TBody" /> <structure-element name="TFoot" /> <!-- Inline-level elements --> <structure-element name="Span" /> <structure-element name="Quote" /> <structure-element name="Note" /> <structure-element name="Reference" /> <structure-element name="BibEntry" /> <structure-element name="Code" /> <structure-element name="Link" /> <structure-element name="Annot" /> <structure-element name="Ruby" /> <structure-element name="Warichu" /> <!-- Illustration elements --> <structure-element name="Figure" /> <structure-element name="Formula" /> <structure-element name="Form" /> <!-- 'Artifact' is a special value --> <structure-element name="Artifact" /> </structure-elements> <!-- The aliases for XEP structure types --> <structure-alias name="Root" value="Document"/> <structure-alias name="PageSequence" value="Part"/> <structure-alias name="Flow" value="Sect"/> <structure-alias name="StaticContent" value="Sect"/> <structure-alias name="FlowSection" value="Sect"/> <structure-alias name="BlockContainer" value="Div"/> <structure-alias name="Block" value="P"/> <structure-alias name="Inline" value="Span"/> <structure-alias name="Wrapper" value="Span"/> <structure-alias name="Leader" value="Span"/> <structure-alias name="Ruler" value="Span"/> <structure-alias name="PageNumber" value="Quote"/> <structure-alias name="PageNumberCitation" value="Quote"/> <structure-alias name="PageNumberCitationLast" value="Quote"/> <structure-alias name="ExternalGraphic" value="Figure"/> <structure-alias name="InstreamForeignObject" value="Figure"/> <structure-alias name="BasicLink" value="Link"/> <structure-alias name="Footnote" value="Note"/> <structure-alias name="FootnoteLabel" value="Span"/> <structure-alias name="FootnoteBody" value="Sect"/> <structure-alias name="ListBlock" value="L"/> <structure-alias name="ListItem" value="LI"/> <structure-alias name="ListItemLabel" value="Lbl"/> <structure-alias name="ListItemBody" value="LBody"/> <structure-alias name="Table" value="Table"/> <structure-alias name="TableRow" value="TR"/> <structure-alias name="HeaderTableCell" value="TH"/> <structure-alias name="BodyTableCell" value="TD"/> <structure-alias name="FooterTableCell" value="TD"/> <structure-alias name="TableHeader" value="THead"/> <structure-alias name="TableBody" value="TBody"/> <structure-alias name="TableFooter" value="TFoot"/> </role-map>  ## Appendix G. List of Output Generators' Options This section contains the following topics: List of Output Generators' Options ## List of Output Generators' Options Feature Option Name Default Value Output Format the section called “Document Security (PDF)” OWNERPASSWORD null PDF the section called “Document Security (PDF)” USERPASSWORD null PDF the section called “Document Security (PDF)” USERPRIVILEGES annotate PDF the section called “PDF Version (PDF)” PDF_VERSION 1.4 PDF the section called “Compression of PDF Streams (PDF)” COMPRESS true PDF the section called “Linearization (PDF)” LINEARIZE false PDF the section called “Unicode Strings in Annotations (PDF, PostScript)” UNICODE_ANNOTATIONS true PDF, PostScript the section called “Treatment of Unused Destinations (PDF, PostScript)” DROP_UNUSED_DESTINATIONS true PDF, PostScript the section called “Initial Zoom Factor (PDF, PostScript)” INITIAL_ZOOM auto PDF, PostScript the section called “PDF Viewer Preferences (PDF)” VIEW_MODE auto PDF, PostScript the section called “PostScript Language Level (PostScript)” LANGUAGE_LEVEL 3 PDF, PostScript the section called “EPS Graphics Treatment (PostScript)” CLONE_EPS auto PostScript the section called “Image Inline Threshold (PostScript)” IMAGE_INLINE_THRESHOLD 0 PostScript the section called “Images Treatment in XML Output (XEP, SVG, XHTML)” EMBED_IMAGES false XML, SVG, XHTML the section called “Break pages (SVG/XHTML)” BREAK_PAGES false SVG, XHTML the section called “Generate first N pages (SVG/XHTML)” GENERATE_FIRST_N_PAGES false SVG, XHTML the section called “Generate XForms (XHTML)” XFORMS false XHTML ## Appendix H. Configuration File DTD This section contains the following topics: Configuration File DTD ## Configuration File DTD This DTD describes the format of XEP configuration file. Namespace nodes and prefixes are omitted for clarity. <!ELEMENT config (options?, fonts, languages?)> <!ATTLIST config xmlns CDATA #IMPLIED xml:base CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT options (option | generator-options)+> <!ATTLIST options href CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT generator-options (option*, charsets?)> <!ATTLIST generator-options format CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT option EMPTY> <!ATTLIST option name CDATA #REQUIRED value CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT fonts ((font-family | font-group | font-alias)+)> <!ATTLIST fonts xmlns CDATA #IMPLIED default-family CDATA #IMPLIED embed CDATA #IMPLIED subset CDATA #IMPLIED xml:base CDATA #IMPLIED href CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT font-group (font-family | font-group | font-alias)+> <!ATTLIST font-group label CDATA #IMPLIED embed CDATA #IMPLIED subset CDATA #IMPLIED xml:base CDATA #IMPLIED href CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT font-family (font+)> <!ATTLIST font-family name CDATA #REQUIRED embed CDATA #IMPLIED subset CDATA #IMPLIED ligatures CDATA #IMPLIED codepage-name CDATA #IMPLIED codepage-file CDATA #IMPLIED encoding CDATA #IMPLIED xml:base CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT font (font-data, transform?)> <!ATTLIST font weight CDATA #IMPLIED style CDATA #IMPLIED variant CDATA #IMPLIED embed CDATA #IMPLIED subset CDATA #IMPLIED ligatures CDATA #IMPLIED size CDATA #IMPLIED xml:base CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT font-data EMPTY> <!ATTLIST font-data afm CDATA #IMPLIED pfa CDATA #IMPLIED pfb CDATA #IMPLIED glyph-list CDATA #IMPLIED ttf CDATA #IMPLIED otf CDATA #IMPLIED ttc CDATA #IMPLIED subfont CDATA #IMPLIED charset-name CDATA #IMPLIED charset-file CDATA #IMPLIED xml:base CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT transform EMPTY> <!ATTLIST transform slant-angle CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT font-alias EMPTY> <!ATTLIST font-alias name CDATA #REQUIRED value CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT languages (language+)> <!ATTLIST languages href CDATA #IMPLIED xml:base CDATA #IMPLIED default-language CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT language (hyphenation?, font-alias*)> <!ATTLIST language name CDATA #IMPLIED codes NMTOKENS #REQUIRED xml:base CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT hyphenation EMPTY> <!ATTLIST hyphenation pattern CDATA #REQUIRED encoding CDATA #IMPLIED xml:base CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT charsets (charset+)> <!ELEMENT charset ((code-range+ | code-ranges), character-mapping?, codepage) > <!ATTLIST charset name CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT code-ranges (code-range+) > <!ELEMENT code-range EMPTY> <!ATTLIST code-range from CDATA #REQUIRED to CDATA #REQUIRED> <!ELEMENT codepage EMPTY> <!ATTLIST codepage name CDATA #REQUIRED ibm-name CDATA #REQUIRED forcelatin CDATA #REQUIRED desc CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT character-mapping (character+) > <!ELEMENT character EMPTY> <!ATTLIST character unicode CDATA #REQUIRED afp CDATA #REQUIRED desc CDATA #IMPLIED> ## Appendix I. DocBook Support This section contains the following topics: Processing DocBook Document Using Catalogs for DocBook ## Processing DocBook Document To process a DocBook (http://www.docbook.org) document use the xep shell (or xep.bat on Windows) command syntax or XEP Assistant putting DocBook document instead of XML source document. Use fo/docbook.xsl stylesheet file from the DocBook XSL Stylesheets distribution to specify it as XSL stylesheet. The DocBook XSL Stylesheets distribution is available at http://wiki.docbook.org/topic/DocBookXslStylesheets. Any release of DocBook XSL can be used. Recommended versions are docbook-xsl-1.69.1 and higher. ## Using Catalogs for DocBook If necessary of using a catalog in XML provide a mapping from generic addresses to specific local directories on a given machine use Norman Walsh's catalog library: Download the resolver.jar file from http://xml.apache.org/commons/dist/ (it may have a version number in the filename) and copy it to a convenient location. Next create a CatalogManager.properties file in a directory that will be included in your CLASSPATH. The resolver will look in this file to determine the locations of the catalog files. The next example shows a properties file that loads the catalog named catalog.xml from the current working directory and the standard DocBook catalog from the absolute path /usr/local/xml/docbook/docbook.cat. catalogs=catalog.xml;/usr/local/xml/docbook/docbook.cat relative-catalogs=true static-catalog=yes catalog-class-name=org.apache.xml.resolver.Resolver verbosity=1 To know how to write XML catalog in detail see http://www.sagehill.net/docbookxsl/Catalogs.html Next browse to the XEP installation directory and edit one of XEP commands which will be used for the catalog file. Add in one of the xep.bat or xep, x4u.bat or x4u scrpts like the following: • -specify additional pathes in your CLASSPATH environment variable of the java command to XEP_HOME/lib/crimson.jar, downloaded resolver.jar and the CatalogManager.properties file's directory;
• -set additional parammeters in the java command like the following:
1. "-Xmx256M" (optional, can be more or less than 256 Mb )

2. "-Dcom.renderx.sax.entityresolver=com.sun.resolver.tools.CatalogResolver"

3. "-Dcom.renderx.jaxp.uriresolver=com.sun.resolver.tools.CatalogResolver"

If everything is done as mentioned above, use the changed XEP command with usual syntax.

## XEP Connector for jEdit version 2.1

### Changes since version 1.*

XEP Connector for jEdit now uses new RenderX XEP API, introduced in XEP 4.0. Since jEdit 4.2 is final, we've updated the loader to the new interface. jEdit plugin now requires jEdit 4.2.

### Overview

XEP Connector for jEdit is a set of interface classes that links XEP to jEdit editor (http://www.jedit.org). It registers itself as a jEdit plugin, and permits to apply an XSL FO stylesheet to an XML document open in jEdit, producing a PDF document. There is also a preview option.

XEP Connector is a free software, with source code included in the distribution. Permission to copy and modify is hereby granted, with the following condition: any derived work must bear a clear reference to the original product.

### Installation

• In order for this module to work, the following software must be installed and properly configured on your computer:

• Java VM version 1.3 or higher;

• jEdit version 4.2 or higher;

• XEP 4.0 or higher.

Write down the locations of installation directories for XEP and jEdit: you will be prompted for these data during setup.

• Make sure that jEdit is not running: close all documents, and quit IDE.

• Run the setup from the jar file, using a Java VM of your choice. Your Java VM must support Java 2, version 1.3 or higher. To run the jar, type the following on the command prompt:

java -jar setupJEditPlugin.jar

The system will prompt you for the location of XEP and jEdit root directories.